Louis and broken in. Silversmith was the owner of the high-powered rifle that killed Red Barker in The Touhy gang was said to have taken over the Dells in and took credit for killing Barker. The Dells Named for a waiter named Dell Jones was robbed several times and fire bombed twice, the last bombing coming on October 8, That same year, while at least people watch, Touhy gunmen marched into the Dells and shot and killed Fred DiGiovanni, a suspected Barker spy within the Touhy organization.
Feburary 24 : Nathan "Nate" Weisenberg was called the "King of the Slots" of Northeastern Ohio although others assumed that he was nothing more than a figurehead for member of the Mayfield Road Mob. Weisenberg had been called to his slot machine warehouse just after am that morning because of a break in.
On his way home and was shot to death in his car just before midnight. Mafia member James Licavoli was the prime suspect but was never charged. June Race-wire operator James M. Ragen was shot from a truck while driving in rush-hour traffic on a Chicago street. Reportedly attacked for refusing to sell out to the hoodlum element, he died of his wounds on August 14, Lenny Patrick and Lenny Yaras are accused of the crime.
October Lucky Luciano flies to Cuba to meet with Meyer Lansky to discuss casinos and other interests. The formal opening of the hotel itself took place on March 1, The Flamingo opens under heavy expectations by the mob investors. In Chicago, Lenny Patrick and two others were implicated in a sensational murder case, the shotgun shooting of James Ragen, the owner of a racing news service who opposed mob efforts to take over his business.
Jones in May, it was widely assumed that Joe Peskin was a major factor behind the crime. Jacob Gurrah Shapiro dies in prison while serving a life sentence. Shapiro had been a leader of the Murder Inc.
The offer was turned down. Lipschultz at that time said he was merely a spokesman for friends. June Benjamin Bugsy Siegel was shot to death through a living-room window while sitting in the Beverly Hills mansion of his paramour, Virginia Hill. Jack Entratter, the one time doorman-bouncer at the Stork Club in Manhattan before moving over to the Copacabana.
In all probability Entratter was a placeholder for Mafia bosses. The Thunderbird casino opens in Las Vegas. Subsequent hearings were held in various cities throughout the country until August 17, The Kefauver hearings on Organized Crime begin. Hearings were held from May 10the day that the Attorney General of the United States declared that the committee had no reason to exist, until May 1 Joey Glimco takes the fifth 80 times before the Kefauver committee.
March 21 Kefauver committee concluded in New York. Mickey Cohen is convicted of income tax evasion. Waxey Gordon dies of a heart attack while locked up for life in Alcatraz. Michael Brodkin was a major mob lawyer in the early s who was brought into the organization by gambler Billy Skidmore.
David Kind, a major stockholder and probably a mob front man, was listed as one of the owners of the mob operated Miami Beach Kennel Club. April 5: Victor Riesel, a nationally known labor columnist, was blinded in an acid attack while leaving a New York City restaurant.
LCN member John Dioguardi was indicted but never tried. June Girolomo Momo Adamo, underboss of the Los Angeles Family, committed suicide in San Diego after seriously wounding his wife over an affair she allegedly was having with the then head of the Family, Frank Desimone. July The Narcotics Control Act of was signed into law, drastically increasing penalties for engaging in the illicit-drug trade. David Kind was a major stockholder and probably a mob front man, in he was listed as one of the owners of the mob operated Miami Beach Kennel Club.
Taran was an ex-bootlegger with a long record for violations of the internal revenue laws. A one-time prize-fighter, he served two years in Illinois state prisons in Taran distributing was widely known as the Chicago mobs front company in Florida in the juke box business.
The casinos Riviera and Dunes open in Las Vegas. The Chicago mob fix it man, Jake Guzik, dies of a heart attack. Officially, Podolsky was an organizer for the egg handlers union local He was indicted for attempted extortion in of Kraft foods, but the federal government later dropped the case Hoodlums (3) - Landmarks (CDr) lack of evidence after their witnesses refused to appear in court.
Podolsky had a police record dating back to However, that record disappeared from police files several days after it was requested by the Kefauver Committee. McClellan opened hearings in Washington, D. Subsequent hearings lasted until December 3,and included an intensive probe into the hoodlum meeting held at Apalachin, New York.
David Berman dies in Las Vegas. The Tropicana casino opens in Las Vegas. On October 1,he was indicted, together with Al Capone, the mayor and chief of police of Cicero, and others for conspiring to violate the prohibition laws.
Vogel worked with George "Babe" Tottenelli, who was the trouble-shooter for Vogel. At the time, a package of cigarettes cost 20 cents at George Street. Sam Giancana was also employed there. The company was started in n December of December 3: Gus Greenbaum, Las Vegas casino operator, and his wife were found murdered in their Phoenix, Arizona, home.
Cuban Revolution. Ruby never gave a full explanation of why he contacted McKeown. Feburary Abner Zwillman is killed or committed suicide. August, the Chicago mob decided it wanted Joe Peskin, the juke box king, out of the way and made three attempts to kill him with bombs each failed to go off and sent a crew to his home beat him with baseball bats.
September 8 Frank Rosenthalfriend of Chicago mobsters, appeared before a Senate hearing on gambling and organized crime. He invoked the Fifth Amendment 38 times. December Bernard Glickman assured Sam Giancana that sonny Liston would do anything that he was asked to do in the fight between sonny Liston and Floyd Patterson.
His ribs were fractured and his nose was broken. He was in his boxer shorts, covered by a sheet when the cleaning maid found him. Vine had been a heavy bookie since when he operated a casino at East 47 th Street in Chicago. The Bahamas become a new location for casinos. Several people become interested in financing casinos there. September 11, Manny Skara Chicago Outfit member and nightclub owner involved in illegal gambling dies.
Bernard Glickman, Chicago mob gambler active from the until at least the s. Officially, Glickman was a fight promoter. He was partners with Accardo in the Cool Vent and Storm Window corporation as well as Howard Gardens, an apartment complex that he managed.
Inhe was said to have been badly beaten by Milwaukee Phil Aldersio. According to rumor, Glickman had been warned to stay away from Chicago based fighter Ernie Terrell a promising heavyweight fighter who was scheduled to take on Muhammad Ali. Instead, on November 1,Glickman flew to New York and was seen publicly with Terrell around the city. Shortly afterwards the state of New York refused to grant Terrell a boxing license because of his known association with Glickman.
InGlickman was reported to be living under an assumed name in California where he sold hearing aides. New Jersey loan shark Harold Konigsberg is sent to prison. May 23 Chicago mobster Benny Stein is sent to prison for 18 months for labor racketeering. Frederick P. Ackerman, a lawyer and business partner with Mad Hoodlums (3) - Landmarks (CDr) DeStefano of Chicago, enters the witness protection program.
Lansky, Cohen, and partners are indicted by the American Government for skimming thirty million dollars from the Flamingo casino.
Lansky flees to Israel. March 13 Paul Red Dorfman dies at age November 5: Meyer Lansky, American hoodlum and gambling figure, departed Israel after the Israeli Supreme Court denied his appeal for the continuance of his tourist visa or his application for immigrant status previously rejected in Septemberby the Minister of the Interior.
Although Lansky's airplane traveled through Switzerland, Africa, and several countries in South and Central America he was unable to gain entry to any other country and was arrested by FBI Agents at the Miami airport, November 7,on contempt of Federal grand jury charges. Three months before, their father, Dave Yaras, suffered a heart attack while playing golf and died in Miami.
September: Paul Gonsky Chicago porn pimp found dead next to his car, shot six times in the head with a. Tony Spilotro is suspected. Lefty Rosenthal is charged with skimming seven million a year from the Stardust Casino.
Lenny Patrick is sent to jail to for criminal contempt of court. He will serve four years on the charge. October 4. Frank Rosenthal Las Vegas casino operator, survived a car bomb when his Cadillac exploded as he turned the key. He ran the mob-owned Stardust, Fremont, Hacienda and Marina casinos. Meyer Lansky dies. January 20Allen Dorfman, whose company handles the Teamsters loans to Las Vegas, is killed in a Chicago parking lot.
January 10 In ChicagoLenny Yaras, the son of legendary hoodlum Dave Yaras was murdered as he made his usual rounds collecting street tax from bookies in the Rogers Park neighborhood, the same area his father had worked in fifty years before.
Since Schemel docked his boats on the Chicago River, which is controlled by the mobbed up 1st Ward, police suspect that pressures were put on him to pay a shake down fee for using the river.
Apparently he refused. City inspectors cracked down on his company and cited him with a series of petty complaints. Finally on August 14,he was shot and killed at South Lumber St. He was uncouth, gruff, insolent and inarticulate He appeared to take pride in his lack of polish. Like Matt Kolb, Roger Touhy was a cautious man. He was not prone to mistakes or leaps injudgement, especially when it came to defying a man as dangerous as Al Capone.
In fact, the only reason he would have entered a shooting war against Capone and his massive criminal organization was based on his absolute certainty that hewould win. That, and his little known agreement with Chicago's powerful mayor, Anton Cermak, made the bootlegger positive that he could pull Capone from his throne. Tony Cermak was, as Judge Lyle noted, "not a nice man.
He liked very few people and trusted no one. As his power grew, so did his paranoia. In the state house, as president of Cook County and later as mayor, Cermak used wiretaps, stolen mail, secret surveillance and informants to get intelligence on the weaknesses of his enemies. Cermak was born on May 7, in a Bohemian village about fifty miles from Prague.
The family immigrated to America insettling in a Chicago slum. Inthe Cermak family moved to Braidwood, in southern Illinois, where the elder Cermak worked as a coal miner.
At age sixteen Tony returned to Chicago alone and saw his opportunity in the rough and tumble world of ethnic politics. He organized the Bohemian community into a powerful voting machine and before he was old enough to vote himself, Tony Cermak was a political power in the Windy City.
In addition to his unquenchable thirst for power, Cermak was also a greedy man who used his power and position to grow wealthy. While still a ward politician, he formed the United Societies, a high- sounding name for what was nothing more then a shakedown operation to collect money from the hundreds of pimps and saloon owners who worked along the notoriously wicked 22nd Street which was later, oddly enough, renamed Cermak Road.
Inat age twenty-six, Cermak went to the State Capitol as a member of the House of Representatives. He eventually worked his way up to Speaker of the House. This position allowed him, if he wished, to block every piece of banking reform legislation before the House. It was a position for which the state's bankers paid him richly. After three terms in the capitol, Cermak's net worth was more than one million dollars.
InCermak was the undisputed boss of the most powerful political machine in the country, and declared himself a candidate for Mayor of Chicago. The syndicate, sensing the federal government might step in to restore order to the streets of Chicago if the hopelessly corrupt "Big Bill" Thompson was re-elected, stood solidly behind Cermak's candidacy.
Ten Percent Tony Cermak the syndicate figured, was one of them. They could live and prosper with Cermak at the helm. On election day, April 7,Cermak trounced Thompson by the largest margin ever recorded in a Chicago may- oral election. He promised the people of Chicago that he would rid their city of gangsters before the Century of Progress Exhibition opened at the World's Fair in the summer of But Cermak wouldn't rid Chicago of organized crime.
Instead he would try to corral it, dominate it, and grow rich from it. All he had to do was give it another face, a plot the federal government had unknowingly aided by putting Capone in prison on a shaky tax charge.
Capone's imprisonment left a void in Chicago's crime syndicate. Cermak intended to fill that void with Roger Touhy. Touhy had told Saul Alinsky, a sociologist, writer and former member of the Joliet State Prison parole board, that in he entered a partnership with Cermak to run Chicago's underworld. The middle man in the deal was Teddy Newberry, a thug who at one time or another had been associated with every major gang in the city and acted as Cermak's bag man on the street. In a meeting at the mayor's office, Cermak and Newberry urged Touhy to wage a war with Capone's mob.
Roger was reluctant. A defensive position against the mob was one thing, but an all out war was entirely different. The syndicate could, Touhy pointed out, muster at least gunmen in a few days. Cermak responded, 'You can have the entire police department. Eventually, Roger agreed to go along, and Cermak sent word to his police commanders that the Touhys were to be cooperated with in the war against the syndicate. Wars cost money. Before the shooting started Roger had to be positive that the cash he needed to support a street war was in place.
Anton Cermak could help with that. At A. The getaway was easy. Two hours earlier, Cermak called the police shift commander and ordered him to pull all of his men out of the area.
During that time Cermak increased his raids on syndicate gambling dens. In one afternoon alone, Chicago police acting on Cermak's orders impounded syndicate slot machines plus another machines stored at Gottleib and Company warehouses. This was the same Gottleib that would later provide slots to mob-owned Las Vegas casinos. As soon as the police took the syndicate's machines, Touhy's men replaced them with their own one armed bandits.
The moment a Mob handbook was closed Touhy's operators were moved in to fill the gap. As always, Cermak had an ulterior motive. The raids were a calculated move to cut the syndicate's cash flow in half so that they wouldn't have the funding to carry on a drawn out street war.
It didn't take the mob's leadership a long time to figure out they had been double-crossed by Cermak, who, along with Touhy, was now putting on the double squeeze.
The quick solution for the syndicate was to kill Roger and Tommy Touhy. However killing them wouldn't prove easy, especially now that they were surrounded by a small army of enforcers including George "Baby Face" Nelson, a proven tough guy. Still, the syndicate's bosses were determined to stop the flow of union treasuries to Touhy. To do that, they would have to send out a message; they had to throw a scare into the union bosses.
It had to be loud and violent and it had to be someone close to Touhy. Bill Rooney was just the right person. William James Rooney was a labor goon who had done his first prison time back in In the years that followed Rooney would face dozens Hoodlums (3) - Landmarks (CDr) arrests including one in for the suspected murder of Joseph Patrick Shea.
Shea had been the business agent for the Chicago sheet metal workers' union, a local which Rooney was trying to muscle his way into. He was acquitted of the murder, even though he had shot Shea dead in the middle of the union hall in front of at least witnesses. No one testified against him and Rooney was released to continue his takeover of the union.
Byhe not only controlled the sheet metal workers', but the flat janitors' and the meat cutters' unions as well. Capone sent word that he wanted half of Rooney's labor empire. Rooney refused and Capone threatened his life.
Unfazed, Rooney made his own threats and then started to move his operation and his family out to Des Plains to live under Touhy's protection. On the night they killed him, Rooney was still moving his belongings from his home in Chicago to a rented house in Des Plains.
His wife and two children had already driven to the country. Rooney waited outside his home while his chauffeur sprinted down the street to retrieve his car from a rented garage about five minutes away. Draped in a heavy grey top coat and dress hat, Rooney paced back and forth on the lawn as a blue sedan pulled up to the curb. One of the men in the back seat, believed to be Paul Ricca, rolled down a window and said, "Hi Billy. When Rooney stepped up to the car and bent down to look inside, a shotgun appeared in the window and three blasts ripped into Rooney's head, chest and stomach.
Remarkably, the blast didn't knock him down. Instead, Rooney grabbed the car as it sped away, but then slid slowly to his knees. He was dragged twenty-five feet before releasing his grip.
With Rooney dead, Red Barker and Murray Humpreys took over the sheet metal and the building service employees' union and looted its treasury. Rooney's murder was one of the last bright moments for the syndicate. For the next two years, the Touhy-Cermak-Newberry combination pounded the mob mercilessly. In fact, within three days of Rooney's murder, the Touhys responded by killing Johnny Genaro, Capone's new acting chief of staff, and his driver, Joey Vince, by pulling up along the side of Genaro's car and drilling a dozen rounds of machine gun fire into both of them.
Genero died immediately but Vince managed to live until the cops arrived. A patrolman lifted the hood's head out of a pool of blood and whispered "Who shot you?
Who did this? For a man full of bullet holes on the threshold of death, Vince was remarkably lucid. He sat upright for a second and said '1 can't describe the men. I was too confused at the moment it happened Then he fell back into the gutter and died. A few days later, Roger Touhy, armed with a machine gun, walked into a meeting at the Teamsters Headquarters in Chicago.
With him was his top enforcer, Willie Sharkey, and two other men. Each of them carried a machine gun and a pistol as they herded the union officials and lined them up against the wall. As more members entered the building for a special emergency meeting, they too were lined up against the wall until there were over one hundred members held hostage.
After two hours, Roger stood before the crowd and spoke. The food for the sick was the same as for the rest of us. If they wanted to eat, they had to stand in line with the others.
Sick-bay was the last stop. Every few days SS men moved the sick from the infirmary to the gas chamber. In order to hold their jobs, they had to become as hardened as our captors. These Jews were the tough characters who had survived the cruelties of the camp, whereas the more sensitive or frail had died trying to stay alive.
Often, the "boss" Jews outdid their SS masters in cruelty. A Jew of this type was the commandant of our block. He was proud of having been chosen. He strode up and down the block like an animal trainer, wielding his whip. Hw would curse us with vile epithets. His whip had a piece of lead fastened to the end, the better to batter our heads and faces. In each barracks a Jew was appointed "host. If a man did not hold his bowl properly when receiving coffee or soup, our host dumped the hot liquid on the man's head, then kicked him in the stomach for wasting food.
We loathed such Jews even more than we despised the SS. Their inhumanities betrayed family, friends, their very Jewish heritage. If an SS man or Kapo happened to overlook some slight slip-up in our work, we could be certain that our Jewish watchdogs would not let it go unpunished. They vented their own frustrations on the prisoners at every opportunity. Some of the Jewish police in the ghetto had been of this sort.
When they had volunteered to serve in the "protective police force," they thought they could be of service to their people. Little by little, however, they were caught in a moral vise. Each day's quota of captives had to be met. Each Jewish policeman was responsible, at the risk of his own life, for bringing in so many Jews a day for the kill. A gradual metamorphosis took place in some of them.
Slowly they assumed the attributes of their hated Nazi masters. They seemed unaware of the breakdown in character which was taking place in them. Others realized what was happening and deserted the police force, preferring to take their chances with their fellow Jews.
Those who remained on the force were not given the special treatment that had been promised by the Nazis, but were eventually brought to Majdanek with the rest of us in the final round-up in the ghetto. There were both good and bad among the Jewish overseers at Majdanek.
I remember one, formerly a Jewish policeman and now with us. He held perhaps the highest possible job in the office -- Field Secretary. Although I knew him to take payment for getting someone a better job, he was nevertheless a man of his word. And he did not carry a whip. That alone was enough to endear him to the prisoners. He was helpful to everyone as much as he dared.
Although I had not previously known him, shortly after my arrival at the camp he placed me in the kitchen as a potato peeler. This job was literally a life-saver, and he asked no payment of me. My assignment in the kitchen was night shift. I was allowed to rest in the barracks during the day.
Better nourishment was to be had in the kitchen, and we were not beaten as often or as severly as others. Our working conditions were much better than for those who labored in the open all day. A number of Czech Jews worked with me in the kitchen. They were mostly kind and helpful.
One of them told me that when they were brought from Czechoslovakia 14 months earlier, they were 12, in number. Now there were about still alive. There had been epidemics of typhus, dysentery, pneumonia among them.
During illness they were not permitted to lie down. When they became too weak to remain on their feet, they were taken to the gas chamber. I remember an Aryan Pole from Warsaw, an engineer. He was a Block Commandant for a short time in our barracks. Though he had the authority to beat and punish, he preferred to make life more bearable for us. Another Aryan Pole, a doctor I had known in Warsaw, was there as a political prisoner.
He shared with me the tidbits of food he was permitted to receive through the mail. A bit of sugar and a few crackers did much to lift my morale.
At the other extreme was a Czech Jew who was sadistic to the point of insanity. All of the prisoners feared him. He held the position of overseer in the kitchen. He slapped the workers in the face with no cause. I still bear the marks of a beating he gave me. The atmosphere in this evil pit called Majdanek was one of near madness. It brought out the beast in some Jews, while others tried to hold onto sanity although under unbearable pressure and agony.
A year-old Jewish boy became the favorite of the Nazis. They trained him to be an overlord, giving him unlimited power over the prisoners. This child swaggered around the camp with a whip in his hand, using it mercilessly on the prisoners -- especially Jews. The Nazis dressed him in special clothes and high boots. He ate in the kitchen with the Kapos and slept in their barracks.
His name was Boby. The boy became so depraved that he had his own parents hanged on the gallows in our Field just because they did not approve of his behavior.
Another Polish Jew held a job as block secretary. One day he beat me to unconsciousness, then pushed my head into a barrel of water. I nearly drowned. Most of the Poles were well-educated professional men, as well as officers of the Polish army and police, priests, aristocrats, members of parliament, and senators.
Their crimes? They were leaders of influence, and the Nazis wanted them eliminated. Relations between Aryan and Jewish Poles in the camp were generally pretty good. All were in the same boat. In the face of death, we were equals. The Polish prisoners, though, were treated a little better than the Jews. They were given additional rations of bread; they had permission to receive parcels and censored letters from outside.
Most importantly, they did not have daily assignments for the gas chamber. From time to time, a few were released and went home. This gave others the hope that if they could withstand the hardships of the camp a little longer, they, too, might be freed.
Among them were many distinguished men from Warsaw. I cannot recall their full names, but there was a Dr. Schiper, a former member of the Polish Parliament, who worked with me in the kitchen. And Cantor Szermah form the Warsaw Synagogue. Lando, a well-known physicist and his brother, an engineer. A big "Fibra" manufacturer, Mr. Kulas, a pharmaceutical wholesaler. Okon, an engineer whose wife jumped from our train. A well-known welfare worker, Mr.
Wegmajster son-in-law of a senator and his two sons from Lodz. And a banker by the name of Gelbfish. All of these men either died or were liquidated during the first 3 or 4 weeks at camp. A famous writer, Andrey Marek, was gassed at the same time as my father. These men were not important to me because of who they had been or the positions they had held, but because of the example they set for the rest of us: the manner in which they accepted adversity, the humbleness with which they approached the most degrading tasks, and never losing their innate dignity.
They showed us how to hold onto the core of decency which separates civilized men from human beasts. Even the gas chamber could not rob them of their stature as men in whom the spark of Godliness dwells. We mourned their passing. We wore only underwear, shirt, and trousers. I managed to hide my cap. It might help to disguise me by covering my shaved head, should I find a way to escape sometime. With little clothing, even the weather became our enemy.
Some of the prisoners had heat strokes, others suffered from exposure to the rain. Every morning at callup time, the bodies of those who had died during the night were brought out and laid in their proper places in the line, so the numbers would tally for the count.
Nazi thoroughness. In addition to the "natural" deaths, there were many "selections" daily. A swollen leg from a beating was sufficient reason for a prisoner to be sent to the gas chamber. Those selected had to stand to the left. We all knew what that meant. Selected prisoners were kept in the "Barracks of Death" sometimes as long as eight days before they were marched into the lethal chamber. Eight days waiting for death. The gas chamber and crematory were running overtime, but still could not keep up with the load.
The odor of roasting bodies hung heavily over the camp. If possible, they fared worse than the men. Their work was the same as ours: aimed to exhaust and kill.
I learned from letters smuggled to me that Luta and Ignas were suffering miserably. There were no bunks in the women's barracks. They slept on bare floors with few covers. They had to fight for their food. It was not apportioned to them. The strong women ate; the weak went hungry. I heard my son was ill with an intestinal disorder. The following day the Nazis took the money from her. On May 23,all mothers with children, 2, all together, were made to stand at attention from six in the morning until midday.
Then they were loaded onto trucks and sent to the gas chamber. We learned all this from the men who delivered food to the women's part of the camp.
I was frantic. I had to find out if Luta and Ignas were among that day's extermination. Three times a day food was placed on platforms which were then pulled by the kitchen workers into the women's field. That evening, I went along with them. When we arrived at Field No. When she saw me, she came near enough that I could hear her. She told me that women with children were given a choice: Let the children go alone to be gassed-- or go with them. Luta would not part with Ignas. They were both dead.
My dear brave Luta! My beautiful boy! Oh, God, now take my life. As we pulled the platform back from the women's field, an SS man broke two sticks across my back. I felt nothing. I probably would not have felt it if they'd cut off my leg. As I pulled my heart seemed to explode in my body. But I lived. Again, I thought there is no God The following day 2, bodies were burned on the open field. The crematory was too small to accomodate such a number.
They piled bodies in a ditch, sprayed them with kerosene and burned them to ashes. The smoke from the mass pyre rose like an evil cloud. The living wept for their loved ones. I wept for my dear wife and son. My loss almost unbalanced me. I could not sleep. I tried to project myself into that final scene.
It was torture. The mothers and children, per Nazi system, were made to remove all clothing before entering the gas chamber. This had to be saved for later prisoners, and it was more efficient to have the selected undress before they died, so the corpses would not have to be disrobed later. My beloved must have taken our boy by the hand, trying to comfort him as they entered the killing room. How strong she must have been for Ignas. How terrified my son. I agonized over these images night after night.
I peeled potatoes as though I were slicing skin off a Nazi's body, gouging bits of root with my paring knife, wishing they were Nazi eyes.
My sole consolation during this time was the smuggled notes my sisters sent. They wrote that they were no longer human beings, merely automatons living from day to day. They knew they were condemned, and there was nothing they could do to prevent their doom. I totally shared their thoughts and fears. But not their resignation, though I was unaware of it at the time. IX The SS men were bad enough, but their female counterparts were more deadly, if you can imagine.
The term "woman" as applied to them was a crude joke and an insult to the rest of womanhood. They were killers in skirts. They wore high boots and carried pistols in their belts, whips in their hands. They were a new breed, devoid of all feminine attributes, their faces obscene masks. The first day in camp, when we were taken to the showers, one of these Nazi cows came among us, completely nude, parading herself for us. Hitler had decreed that any German woman having relations with a Jew would be guilty of "Rassenschande," race-shame.
But what Jew worthy of the name would commit race-shame with such as these? There were other women in the camp. While we were still in the ghetto, we heard that attractive Polish girls and other young women were disappearing from the streets of Warsaw under mysterious circumstances. Now we knew what had happened to them.
They were here at Majdanek, victims of Nazi white slavery. We saw them. They were housed in a brick building surrounded by a high barbed-wire fence, guarded at the gate by SS men. As they walked in the gardenthey looked well-fed, these young women, kept in good condition for the pleasure of the SS beasts.
Some of the male prisoners who worked beside the women's field acted as postmen between the two camps. When I asked them why I had not heard from them, they gave no straight answer. Had they seen my sisters? I felt positive I would never see my sisters again. Their deaths severed the last earthly ties for me.
In just a few weeks' time I had lost all of my loved ones: Orphaned, wifeless, childless, bereft of my entire family. I alone survived. At this moment in May, the most beautiful month of the year, when everything comes to life, I died within myself. For as long as I live, May will be a month of mourning.
But what prospect could the future hold for me if I should survive? I prayed that I might join my loved ones. I considered suicide. Others had taken this way out. The easiest way was to throw yourself against the electrified fence surrounding the field.
This was known as the "lane of death. So the odds were good that you would be killed before even making it to the fence. One way or the other, sudden death seemed preferrable to the torture of the camp. Yet, as I nursed the thought of suicide I was emotionally conflicted. I wanted to be dead, but I wanted vengence. Today, schools not only spend more time on classroom discussions of social behavior, they do so non-judgmentally.
This means that the ideas of delinquents and hoodlums are put on the same plane as the ideas of students raised to the strictest moral standards. Not only are the latter exposed to the ideas and experiences of the former, they are exposed in a setting where their overt rejection of such ideas and experiences would encounter the condemnation of the teacher. One can dispense self-esteem as the Wizard of Oz dispensed substitutes for heart, courage, and brains.
But printing any currency promiscuously destroys its value and there is no reason to doubt that the same principle applies to the currency of respect.
Indeed, the trans parent fraudulence of elaborate pretenses of respect are an added insult. In a world where every society and every civilization has borrowed heavily from the cultures of other societies and other civilizations, everyone does not have to go back to square one and discover fire and the wheel for himself, when someone else has already discovered it. Europeans did not have to continue copying scrolls by hand after the Chinese invented paper and printing.
There is yet another way in which the mirage of equality promotes inequality in the real world. Ideological crusades in the name of equality promote envy, the principle victims of which are those doing the envying. For some, envy can act as a spur to match the achievements or rewards of others currently more fortunate. This can happen in the case of individuals or in the case of whole nations, such as Japan, whose generations-long drive to catch up to the industrialized Western nations achieved success in the twentieth century.
On the other hand, envy can also engender social strife, whose consequences include the possibility that the society as a whole can end up worse off, both materially and psychically, as a result of mutually thwarting activities, including mob violence and civil war. The first kind of envy—the more or less natural and potentially beneficial envy that spurs self-development and achievement—creates few incentives for third parties to try to mobilize and heighten it for their own benefit.
It is the second kind of envy, expressed in hostility toward others, that is useful for third parties pursuing careers as politicians, group activists, or ideologues. It is this kind of envy which can have high costs to society at large and to the poor especially. It is not simply that the poor may suffer psychically from having less than others and from being encouraged to dwell on their current situation, rather than concentrating on improving it.
The very terms of the discussion encourage them to attribute their less fortunate position to social barriers, if not political plots, and so to neglect the kinds of efforts and skills which are capable of lifting them to higher economic and social levels. For the currently less fortunate members of society, the costs of envy can be especially high when it misdirects their conceptions and energies.
Where poorer people are lacking in human capital—skills, education, discipline, foresight—one of the sources from which they can acquire these things are more prosperous people who have more of these various forms of human capital. This may happen directly through apprenticeship, advice, or formal tutelage, or it may happen indirectly through observation, reflection, and imitation.
Acquisition of human capital in general seems futile under this conception and acquisition of human capital from exploiters, the greedy, and racists especially distasteful. Often members of poorer racial, ethnic, or other social groups can acquire the needed human capital more easily from more fortunate members of their own respective groups than from others.
What such an ideology does essentially is paint the less fortunate into their own little corner, isolated from potential sources of greater prosperity. To the more fortunate, resistance or rebuffs to their attempts to help the less fortunate may be no more than a passing annoyance but, to the less fortunate themselves, this failure to acquire available human capital can be fatal to their own prospects.
Whole societies may remain mired in needless poverty, not only because envious visions have created a bogus explanation for their poverty that distracts them from readily available means of becoming more prosperous, but also because envy and fear of envy within these societies inhibit individual striving and innovation. Studies of many poor and primitive soci eties around the world repeatedly show the paralyzing effects of a pervasive fear of provoking envy among neighbors and relatives.
The cooperation and mutual trust necessary for many kinds of beneficial joint undertakings are more difficult to achieve within this cultural universe, however much such things may be taken for granted in more fortunate societies. Merely transferring capital or technology from these more fortunate societies is seldom sufficient to overcome the cultural handicaps of an envy-stricken society, especially when traditional beliefs are buttressed by more sophisticated modern versions of the envy vision spread by the Third World intelligentsia, often seconded by the intelligentsia in more fortunate countries.
The ultimate in envy is the dog in the manger. Although the dog does not eat straw, he refuses to move so that the horse can eat it, simply because he begrudges the horse the pleasure of eating the straw. The fact that this story has survived for thousands of years suggests that such attitudes are not unknown among human beings. After the First World War, Romania acquired territory from the defeated Central Powers and these territories included universities that were culturally German or culturally Hungarian.
At that point, roughly three-quarters of all Romanians were still illiterate, so the Germans and Hungarians at these universities were not keeping most Romanians from getting a higher education. Nevertheless, the government made it a priority to force Germans and Hungarians out of these universities. Moreover, when ethnically Hungarian students in Romania began going to universities in Hungary, the Romanian government forbad them to do so.
Such dog-in-the-manger attitudes are not peculiar to a particular country, race, or civilization. When Nigeria acquired its independence inmany of the civil servants, professionals, and entrepreneurs in northern Nigeria were from tribes in southern Nigeria. One of the top priorities of the political leaders in the north was to force these southerners out of these occupations.
Because of huge disparities in education, skill levels, and entrepreneurship, between the two regions of the country, there was no realistic hope of replacing southerners with northerners in any timely fashion. But northern political leaders were prepared to hire European expatriates in the interim, or to suffer a decline in the services formerly provided by the southerners, rather than suffer the blow to their egos of being so dramatically outperformed by their fellow Africans.
Similar attitudes existed halfway around the world in Malaysia, where discriminatory policies against the more educated, skilled, and entrepreneurial Chinese minority led many of them to leave the country.
Dog-in-the-manger attitudes are not confined to situations where there are ethnic differences. Estate taxes are an even clearer example of dog-in-the-manger attitudes, since they are a trivial proportion of total taxes collected by the government and it is questionable whether these taxes exceed the collection and compliance costs.
But they serve the political purpose of striking a blow against inherited wealth. Even if those at the bottom were not made any worse off, no one else could be allowed to become better off without their participation. This is a particularly striking principle where there are low unemployment rates and many avenues of upward mobility, where those who do not choose to take advantage of these opportunities are to have their interests become pre-emptive as against the interests of the great majority of people who do.
These examples are merely particular illustrations of a more general set of attitudes which exalt envy and seldom count the cost of doing so. Even those intellectuals who often attribute collective guilt for individual actions in other contexts—blaming American society for the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, for example—seldom apportion any part of the blame for crimes of envy to those like themselves who promote it.
Society as a whole can lose opportunities when people in various decision-making capacities have their decisions biased by envy. For example, a former admissions official at an Ivy League college warned prospective applicants not to say or do things that would reveal their educational or economic privileges, as that would tend to bias admissions officials against them.
For example, she advised:. The best thing you can do if you come from a privileged background is deemphasize it as best you can. For example, if you and your family took a ten-thousand-dollar vacation to Africa to go on Safari, it would probably be best not to write about it on your application It may rub admissions people the wrong way, since most do not have the money and resources to take such an exotic trip.
Nor is this something confined to college admissions committees. These financial costs can be several times what it costs to educate the average student, while the educational results for a severely mentally retarded student may be imperceptible. Yet, clearly, it is an injustice, from a cosmic perspective, that the minds and psyches of some are unable to cope with what ordinary students handle routinely. But just as some students suffer handicaps through no fault of their own, so can other children suffer from mainstreaming policies, likewise through no fault of their own.
One such student was able, in the fourth grade, to score higher than the average high school graduate on the mathematics portion of the Scholastic Aptitude Test. Nor was this principal unique. Disregard of effects on third parties are also common on such issues as taxes, price controls, and law enforcement. Tax issues are not simply about whether one class pays more than another, but are also about the repercussions of particular kinds of taxes on economic development and national employment, which affect everyone.
Price controls on food have often led to widespread hunger and malnutrition, as suppliers reduced their production and sales of food when this became unprofitable. Undermining law enforcement because of its perceived unfairness to the poor led to skyrocketing crime rates which hurt the poor worst of all.
Envy may cause many issues to be seen in terms transferring benefits from A to B. But policies conceived of this way as transfers do not simply transfer. Ever a humanitarian, McGurk renamed the bar Suicide Hall in an attempt to capitalize on the publicity.
Scores of suicide attempts followed. Police Commissioner Theodore Roosevelt ordered the saloon closed in Click for the complete story of Eat Em Up Jack. McManus stepped in, throwing Tricker out on his ear. As he reached the corner of Bleeker Street, a burly hoodlum named Sardinia Frank stepped from the shadows clutching a gas pipe wrapped in newspaper fingerprints could not be lifted from newsprintand smashed McManus in the back of the head. McManus died in Belleview Hospital calling out for his beloved wife Gertrude.
He was 40 years old. Click for a longer story on Paul Kelly. Kelly Association headquarters, an organized hoard of repeat voters, ex-pugilists, pimps, and gangland heavies otherwise known as The Five Points Gang.
Jean Michel Basquiat would later die of an overdose in the loft above the New Brighton. The police closed the bar after a gunfight in In the wake of the imprisonment of Monk Eastman, the Jewish elements of his mob struck out and formed a new clique centered in a small cafe on Second Avenue.
During the early s, the Cafe was the headquarters of the Jewish mob. Read Full Post ». Veterans had scars, but what the doctors witnessed was ridiculous. Addled by opium and fresh out of prison, Eastman needed to a change.
Time was running out for the middle-aged gangster. Monk must have marveled at the red-pressed brick castle on Bedford Avenue. Scholars cannot say for sure what drove the forty- four-year-old gangster to join the 27 th. Some historians suppose that Monk just wanted to turn his life around and kick his opium habit. Monk Eastman enlisted in the 27th infantry division here in the castle like Bedford Atlantic Armory Image via Wikipedia.
On August 30 thEastman and the 27 th shipped out to the most intensive trench warfare school in the United States at Camp Wadsworth, South Carolina. In their training, the recruits faced diluted chlorine gas, trench clearing drills, and all the other horrors of the Great War. The old man could outrun anybody in the unit. When Eastman hit a bayoneting dummy, he nearly tore it in half. Eastman was once the prince of the Lower East Side, but opium addiction and prison sentences destroyed his kingdom.
Eastman and his comrades dug in under the shadow of Mont Kemmel and Vierstraat Ridge, two German strongholds bristling with heavy artillery. Under the cover of a barrage, Ward and the screaming men of the th went over the top. A German staccato of machinegun fire pined down the entire regiment, but Monk broke the stalemate with a fist full of Mills Bombs.
According to the New York Tribune. Because of the success at Vierstraat, in three days time, the 27 th captured Mount Kemmel, Rosignoll Wood, Petite Bois, Plateau Farm, and hundreds of prisoners, but Monk was not there celebrate. He was laid up in a field hospital nursing his wounds. On September 4, the 27 th moved to prepare for one of the greatest battles in the war, the taking of the impregnable Hindenburg Line, gateway to the German Homeland.
When Monk got wind of the plans in the hospital, he went renegade. The gangster stole away into the night, fleeing the hospital half-naked and barefooted.
According to Lieutenant J. Unfortunately for the 27 ththe Hindenburg attack made the battle in the Ypres seem easy. According to Maj. Field Marshal Paul Von Hindenburg, engineer of the Hindenburg line of barbed wire, mines and machine gun nests. German reinforcements stood in the nearby St. Quintin Canal TunnelHoodlums (3) - Landmarks (CDr) bombproof 50 meters deep brick tunnel built by Napoleon Bonaparte. The tunnel housed thousands of German reinforcements on canal boats who could be shuttled anywhere on the line unseen and under cover.
On the morning of September 27, the th stormed though a hail of machineguns and artillery fire to capture a precarious foothold from which the main assault on the St.
Quintin tunnel would be led. By now the troops knew not to argue with the gangster. With the position secure, the th withdrew to the rear, but Monk begged the head surgeon, Major Larson, for permission to remain as a stretcher-bearer. According to Major Larson. A few days later, the 27 th demolished the canal tunnel and broke the Hindenburgh Line.
More provinces will lessen the prevailing acrimony, mutual apprehensions and tensions between the four provinces. It would readily assuage the sense of deprivation and discrimination nursed by the smaller provinces against the big province which in this case is Punjab.
Such a monumental change would catapult the much coveted paradigm of good governance in Pakistan. Such a landmark decision would undoubtedly put Pakistan on the road to economic prosperity and socio- political stability and forestall the breakaway tendencies. The PPP government deserves huge applause and due credit for passage of the 18 th amendment in It was a giant step that among other revolutionary changes has abolished the concurrent list of 47 subjects.
These subjects were the sordid legacy of the British imperial rule and had kept the autonomy of the provinces host and vulnerable to the interference by the central government. However, the division of Pakistan into more provinces has to yet to be undertaken. The 18 th amendment has taken care of the transfers of powers to the provinces.
But to make use of those powers fruitfully, the creation of more provinces is imperative. Such a momentous measure would also put an end to the mutual bickering between the four provinces. November 19, By Saeed Qureshi. Bal Thackeray the founder of the Shiv Sena has died at the age of His legacy that he bequeathed is parochialism and hatred for all other races except Marathis for whom he founded inthis cult type outfit in the state of Maharashtra.
Viewed in the murky light of his political philosophy he stands out as the antagonist of the Indian constitution that essentially is secular and shuns sectarianism, communalism, racial discords and ethnic divisions. Thackeray was known as a symbol of violence, terrorism and fear for other ethnic groups in Bombay and elsewhere in Maharashtra that were periodically targeted by ferocious and murderous gangs of Shiv Sena.
He was a fanatic Hindu of typical brand and had spun a spiritual aura around his mysterious personality. He was revered by his followers as a kind of deity with esoteric powers. As a fiery speaker in his own right and with a complexion of Hindu Sadhu or pundit monk he would inspire his devotees to faithfully follow his commands no matter how perilous and fatal those were for the rest of the community. Such was the tight hold of Thackeray on the affiliates and members of the Sena army that they would not hesitate or think twice to rampage and even spill blood of the victims.
Although Thackeray never held any office, yet in due course he had gathered so enormous a clout that he would dictate his demands to the government functionaries in the state by telephone calls and they would readily oblige. As the head of a fanatic militant party, Bal Thackeray became the Godfather or the monarch of Bombay, an Indian metropolis that excels in business and bollywood galore and is the hub of a fast paced varied social life.
He was also dreaded by the state government as he could spill disaster on the spur of the moment by a simple call. He was never indicted against a long list of criminal activities that for others could be an ensured passage to jail if not to gallows.
Since he stood for and represented only one minority in the Indian federation, otherwise dotted with innumerable religious and social factions; his philosophy and creed was entirely narrow and biased.
He was brazen in his opposition to the other ethnic communities living in Maharashtra whom he would dub as outsiders and would want them to be pushed out of that state.
It was also aimed at halting the spread of Islam in India. Precisely for this reason Thackeray asked the Sena cadres in to respond to Islamist suicide bombers by becoming suicide bombers themselves. His deep aversion and acute hatred for non Marathis led to their harrowing massacres, loot and plunder of non Marathis by Shiva Sena brigands for decades.
During s and 70s a prolonged reign of terror and harassment was let loose against the South Indians by the bandits of Shiv Sena who vandalized the shops, businesses, restaurants and homes of the former.
Inthe Biharis were brutally targeted by Shiv Sena hoodlums after Thackeray labeled them as infiltrators and outsiders. Most of these outsiders earned their living as taxi drivers, selling milk and newspapers.
They were intimidated, beaten intermittently and forced to leave Bombay and other cities in the Maharashtra state. It was a kind of ethnic cleansing by violent means to make the Marathis as the majority race in his state. From onward Shiv Sena carried out attacks on Dalit farmers in Vidarbha and Marathwada, destroying their crops and burning their huts.
Shiv Sena also killed many unyielding politicians, journalists, community activists and notable individuals, whose names are available in the history books. InThe horrendous riots broke out between Hindus and Muslims after the demolition of the Babri mosque by fanatic Hindus with Shiv Sena militants in the lead. In those deadly riots during which the Shiv Sena cadres played dominant role, people died in Bombay. More than 2, people were killed in ensuing riots in many major cities of India.
The Shiv Sena is already going through a process of disintegration and fragmentation. It is already divided into two parts. Earlier many colleagues of Thackeray also left the party due to differences on the rigid and racial policies of the boss. One may safely predict that under the changing times, it would be utterly difficult for the Shiv Sena to continue the legacy of violence and terrorism against the minorities in order to give ascendancy to Marathis or to browbeat the Muslims.
A great deal of homogeneity and mutual understanding is developing among the diverse religious and ethnic sections in India. The creed of ethnic hatred and militancy as propounded by Shiv Sena seems to have run out its course. Shiv Sina is a spent force and cannot maintain or revive it creed of terrorism and violence anymore.
Sunday, November 18, West is so biased in Favor of Israel! There looms a colossal danger of the Israel-Hamas conflict to escalate further entailing huge loss of life and infrastructure. There is no parity between Hamas and Israel in military paraphernalia and fighting force. Israel is one of the leading military powers although its size is equal to that of New Jersey sq.
She has the potential to Hoodlums (3) - Landmarks (CDr) the whole of Gaza sq km in matter of hours. She can shower bombs and missiles on Gaza and for that matter on any Arab land.
The latest conflagration that if not checked would pick up momentum and result in huge chaos and unimaginable mayhem in Gaza. Already several scores of Palestinians have been killed and injured in the conflict. Three Israeli citizens have also died. With the invasion that Israel would embark upon, the whole Gaza may be reduced to heap of rubble and cause countless casualties of the Palestinians. In recent times this is the second mammoth offensive launched by Israel against the Hamas in Gaza Strip.
A similar Israeli assault on Gaza launched during the winter of — is known as Gaza massacre. In that offensive as many as 1, Palestinian and 13 Israeli were killed. This time Israel plans to enter Gaza with a ground force of 75, regular troops and around 16, reservists.
Israeli army has positioned itself around Gaza with tanks and artillery. Also thus far the Israeli war planes have carried out air strikes targeting missiles sites, residential homes and official buildings. It is a full-fledged war triggered by Israel against a 1.
The Hamas militants are continuing their rocket firing towards the Israeli territory which they claim as the most powerful weapons in their arsenal — Iranian-made Fajr-5 rockets: a much superior weapon than homemade projectiles Qassam used by them in the past. Hamas seems to be undeterred by the impending dreadful offensive. But it surmises that Hamas is prepared to have the showdown with the Israel in the same way as the Hezbollah countered Israeli military might in August-September through a guerrilla war.
In Lebanon offensive, despite brutal air strikes and naval blockade, Israel could not score a complete victory and had to withdraw after 34 days of fighting following a UN truce resolution. In that conflict 1, Lebanese people and Israelis died. It severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure.
Besides, one million Lebanese and ,—, Israelis were displaced. The world community does not have the conscience to talk of the coastal blockade that Israel has imposed on Gaza strip by strictly checking even the food items and essential drugs that are brought in. The residents of Hamas are in virtually siege as in a concentration camp.
The world at large does not ask or counsel the powerful Israel not to build new settlements and barricades in the Palestinians territories. The latest conflict is the result of killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing on November The western countries do not blink when the military commander of Hamas is killed by Israeli war planes.
He may be a terrorist for Israel but was a respected leader of the Hamas. The European UnionUnited StatesUnited Kingdom and other Western countries condemned the Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel and expressed support for Israel's right to defend its citizens.
Israel has to perceive the new ground realities that have emerged in the Middle East after the December Gaza offensive and in the aftermath of the Arab spring that is still apace.
Egypt one of the strongest allies of Israel, is now with the Hamas and would not join Israel in taking a united stand against the Hamas militants. Sooner or later, there would appear a formidable block of regional Islamic states that could thwart Israeli plan to keep her hold over Gaza and other Palestinian territory.
Would it not be in order and a demonstration of justice and neutrality if the European nations tell Israel to not resort to the use of excessive power for such provocations that can be settled by mutual negotiations? If Israel stops treating Gaza as its colony and relaxes and softens its stifling restrictions and suffocating conditions on the residents of Gaza, the purpose of stopping the rockets aimed at Israeli land could be effectively and durably stopped.
Are the western countries oblivious of the United Nations resolution number adopted on 29 November that calls for the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem? In the ongoing ominous conflict if the Hamas somehow can offset the military offensive of Israel as the Hezbollah did inthen it would be a great disgrace and losing of face for her.
Israel must ponder that how long the West and the United States would support and come to her rescue by trampling the canons of established justice and showing partisan and deliberate blind support for her. It should also be perceived that in due course, Iran and Egypt and other regional states can become militarily as strong as Israel is.
Israel has to grasp this fundamental fact that it would never be able to maintain its security militarily or by denying the legitimate rights of the other party that is Palestinians.
Intro - Kampfzone - Bastarde (CD, Album), I Still Believe - Lee Greenwood - I Still Believe / Ill Be Lovin You (Vinyl), Аббадон - Коррозия Металла - Коррозия Металла CD1 (CD), Svet Stromov - Marika Gombitová - Môj Malý Príbeh (Vinyl, LP, Album), Shes Sexy - The 54 - Dominate (CDr), And Justice For All - Metallica - Live Shit: Binge & Purge (Box Set, Album), Everyday - DJ Hamma - Hype Sessions Vol. 20: Phola Lounge Session (CD), Último Recado - Camané - Do Amor E Dos Dias (CD, Album), Last Night Ska - Various - Jamaica Ska (Vinyl, LP), Raquel Rastenni - Favoritter Vol. 3 (Vinyl, LP), A La Orilla De La Chimenea - Joaquín Sabina - Física Y Química (Vinyl, LP, Album), Still - Quarks - Königin (Vinyl, LP), Estensione, Midwest Moms - Midwest Moms (Cassette), Carl Michael Bellmans Lied An Die Mutter