Dezember in Prag, gestorben am In seinem religionsphilosophischen Hauptwerk Denker und Glaubende fasst er diese Gedanken zusammen. He wrote on the nature of quantum mechanics and causality where he interpreted spontaneity in nature with the psychological idea that the closer we come to elements in nature or components in the individual, the less tenable is strict causal determinism and the more freedom we must grant to decisive personal elements.
Das philosophische Werk Bernhard Bolzanos. Olms Verlag Hildesheim und New York. Bestehen des Fachvereins der in Buchbindereien und verwandt. Faksimile-Ausgabe zum Beitrag In: Vom Judentum. Heft 3. Jawne und Jerusalem. Beitrag In: Ernst Rychnovsky Hg. Christliche Chaluza in Israel. Beitrag In: Eva Reichmann Hg. Dietmar Wiechmann, Der Traum vom Frieden. Kurt Wilhelm Hg. Eine Auswahl aus zwei Jahrtausenden. Peter Normann Waage, Eine herausfordernde Begegnung.
In ganz Europa folgten junge Juden seinem Ruf. Amos Elon. Bialik was one of the pioneers of modern Hebrew poetry. He was part of the vanguard of Jewish thinkers who gave voice to the breath of new life in Jewish life.
Bialik wrote several different modes of poetry. He is perhaps most famous for his long, nationalistic poems, which call for a reawakening of the Jewish people. Bialik had his own awakening even before writing those poems, arising out of the anger and shame he felt at the Jewish response to pogroms. However no less effective are his passionate love poems, his personal verse, or his nature poems.
From onwards, he wrote mostly prose. Emanuel bin Gorion. Nach dem PogromVerlag R. Volckmar Leipzig und Online-Ausgabe: Dt. Nationalbibliothek Leipzig und Frankfurt a. Die hebraeische Universitaet.
Selected Writings poetry and proseHasefer ? Ernst Simon, Chajjim Nachman Bialik. The Modern Hebrew Poem Itself, 1. Random Harvest — The Novellas of C. Songs from Bialik. BialikLang Verlag Frankfurt a. Band 3, Metzler Verlag Stuttgart u. WeimarS. Yehoas Biber geboren am Die Gastfreundschaft steht hoch im Kurs. Der SchatzJunior Press Augsburg. Birstein loves to look at objects: socks, shoes, nails, but most of all he loves to look at people.
The book is a microcosmos of characters whose small stories reflect the human condition. The bus the storyteller rides through Jerusalem becomes a meeting place and observation point where everyone crowds together — people from the reality that is Jerusalem as well as from other realities etched in the memory of the traveling storyteller. Birstein reveals the best of human nature and uses his stories as a bridge between contradicting characters and experiences: between Jews and Arabs, the secular and the religious, old timers and newcomers, Ashkenazim and Sepharadim.
Continues the ancient tradition of the Jewish folk storyteller with sad humor. But it is much more sophisticated and worked than it seems at first glance. Yedioth Ahronoth. Presents an entire fascinating unique world constituting a microcosm of Jerusalem society…and perhaps of the life of all mankind. Makor Rishon. More interesting to Birstein is the wonderful collage of characters and groups the reality provides him on the street and in the bus, creating for him the poetics of his work.
Anecdotal stories are sprinkled over his novel like icing sugar… Jerusalem is alive, especially in the street scenes with beggars, magicians, singers, players and yeshiva students. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Amela Einat. A virtuoso observation of the comic and the grotesque, A Face in the Cloud is an elegy about the Jews of Europe and the destruction of a culture. Menahem Perry. In The Collector everyone is either documenting something or founding a museum. The stock exchange itself is a memorial to the Jewish townlet.
Forgotten areas are revealed as essential — if grotesque — aspects of Israeli reality, expressed in what critics have acclaimed as an absolutely masterly manner. Begegnung In: Eva Rottenberg Hg. Gesicht in den Wolken. A Nowersztern. Sarah Blau geboren am The narrator, a bitter, single year-old virgin still living with her parents, is bursting at the seams with loathing and desire, and she lashes out at everyone, primarily herself.
At a religious high school for girls, a year-old student is preparing a play based on the story of The 93 Girls, Jewish girls from Krakow who committed suicide to avoid rape a story once believed to true, but now is considered a myth. In the show, a heart broken novelist is working on a modern version of the story of Jael, the biblical heroine who killed Sisera to deliver the Israelites.
Those Well-Raised Girls is an important polemic that openly criticizes the priorities of religious society and the frightening attitude to the body and sexuality. But it is first and foremost literature. Superb literature. Emily Amrousi, Israel Hayom. Sehr ernsthaft widmet sich Haaretz diese Woche dem Humor in der israelischen Gesellschaft. Magazinrundschau A courageous author who does not fear confronting and demythologizing Jewish myths … she is like Walzer and Saussure in the unceasing clash of truth and fiction in her book, while at the same time she writes inimitable and powerful prose.
Nissim Katz, Yekum Tarbut. Fischer Verlag Frankfurt a. Hila Blum Hilah Blumgeboren am Der Besuch. Rachel is known for her lyrical style, the brevity of her poems, and the revolutionary simplicity of her conversational tone. The majority of her poetry is set in the pastoral countryside of the Land of Israel. Many of her poems echo her feelings of longing and loss, a result of her inability to realize her aspirations in life. In several poems she mourns the fact that she will never have a child of her own.
Lyrical, exceedingly musical and characterized by its simple language and deep feeling, her poetry deals with fate, her own difficult life, and death. Her love poems emphasize the feelings of loneliness, distance, and longing for the beloved. It also touches upon the hardships and laments of a pioneer reminiscing of times spent in labouring on the land.
Her lighter poetry is ironic, often comic… en. But the idealization of her character has come at the expense of her work. Her poems are sung by one and all, but literary criticism and academic research have treated Rahel as a poet of limited abilities and have not accorded her poetry the serious study that it deserves.
Dana Olmert. Her love poems stress a feeling of loneliness, distance, and longing for the beloved. Some of her best-known verse expresses love for Eretz Israel and a nostalgia for the Sea of Galilee. Bis heute haben die Gedichte und Lieder, die nach Versen von Rachel vertont wurden, nicht an Anziehungskraft verloren und verkaufen sich nach wie vor gut.
Einer der bedeutendsten Komponisten, der sich der Vorlagen von Rachel angenommen hatte, ist Josef Tal gewesen. A braham. I do not feel an obligation to speak about the political situation just because I served. My obligation is to the quality of my fiction, because I am trying to become a writer, whatever that means. Fiction writers from my region often become the interpreters of this senseless conflict to the rest of the world.
Some writers take the task upon themselves in all its weightiness, others do so reluctantly. Shani Boianjiu, artsbeat. Die Erfahrung von Gewalt und Tod und Vergeblichkeit bestimmt das Leben der drei jungen befreundeten Soldatinnen in einem Moment, da sie ihr Heimatdorf an der Grenze zum Libanon verlassen haben und sich an der Schwelle von der Kindheit zum Erwachsenwerden befinden.
Sie alle suchen sich selbst, aber sie finden sich gefangen in einer absurden Welt, die ihre Bestrebungen dementiert. Jochen Rack, SWR2. Es gibt so viele Informationen, die ich absorbieren will, mit meinem geopolitischen Background. Das Volk der Ewigkeit kennt keine Angst. Alles war hier unbeschreiblich fremd, eigenartig, trostlos. Netti Boleslav. Daniel Cohen-Sagi. Der Weg ist tausend Schlangen weit. Gedichte, Verlag J. Peter, Gebr. Holstein Rothenburg ob der Tauber. Ein Zeichen nach uns im Sand.
Betreuer: Gerhard Lauer. Beitrag In: Wo sich Kulturen begegnen. Eine AutobiographieBleicher VerlagGerlingen. Ahron Bregman wurde am 1. Charles H. He revolutionised the way I approach the subject by encouraging me to challenge even the smallest pieces of information. Simon Parkin, The Guardian, Bregman has the ability to combine his extensive knowledge with a dry sense of humour.
But his anecdotes of the person and topics we study made his lectures simply unique. More than once I sat on the tip of my chair to hear his stories. It is recommendable for all those who want to start their approach to the theme with an unemotional overview.
Gesiegt und doch verloren. Lehre, Gesetz und Nation. Kauffmann Frankfurt a. Die Idee des AgudismusHg. ElischaVerlag J. Programm oder Testament. Erez Jisroel und die Orthodoxie. Der neue Kusari. Die Tragik des MisrachiHg. Frankfurt a. Erez Jisroel-BriefeHg. Matthias Morgenstern, Von Frankfurt nach Jerusalem. Dissertation: Josef R. Lawitschka, Metageschichte. Matthias Morgenstern, Die Heimkehr des Enkels. Isaac Breuer und sein umstrittenes Erbe, In: Judaica.
Heft 3,S. In: Judaica. Christian Kraft, Aschkenas in Jerusalem. Denis Maier, Isaac Breuer Mai in Prag, gestorben am Unlike Kafka, Brod rapidly became a prolific, successful published writer who eventually published 83 titles. His first novel and fourth Zwischen Sommer Und Herbst - T-Wald* - Landeinwärts: In Memory Of Hermann Hesse (CD) overall, Schloss Nornepygge Nornepygge Castlepublished in when he was only 24, was celebrated in Berlin literary circles as a masterpiece of expressionism.
This and other works made Brod a well-known personality in German-language literature. Intogether with Weltsch, he published the work Anschauung und Begriff which made him more famous in Berlin and also in Leipzig, where their publisher Kurt Wolff worked…. They include songs, works for piano and incidental music for his plays. Max had studied Orchestration under Alexander Uriah Boskovich.
Both before and after this major shift in ideology, Brod was keenly attentive to European avant-garde movements, first favoring the modernist inclinations of Paris and Berlin. He understood Czech and took an interest in Czech culture that was uncommon among German-acculturated Prague Jews of previous generations. Leitgedanke in der Theologie bzw. Max Brod nimmt auch einen ehrenvollen Platz in der Musikgeschichte ein.
Brod meisterte die schwierige Aufgabe, seinen Text in Einklang zu bringen mit einer Musik, die ganz auf der Sprachmelodie des Tschechischen basierte. Ebenso eine seiner Nichten und sein einziger Neffe. He later coined the term Distanzliebe distance love to refer to the special relationship of German Jewish writers to this alien language with which they were so intimate. Im Wiener Stadtteil Hernals Beitrag In: Das literarische Deutsch-Oesterreich. Illustrierte Wochenschrift Hg.
Beitrag In: Das Leben. Illustrierte Wochenschrift, Hg. Arthur Kirchhoff, 2. Jahrgang, Nr. Darin u. Ludwig Thoma u. Beitrag In: Hyperion. Eine Zweimonatsschrift. Siegfried Jacobsohn, 5. Jahrgang, Verlag Erich Reiss Berlin.
Beitrag In: Deutsche Arbeit. Jahrgang, 3. Heft, Verlag Bellmann Prag. Ein Protest in Sachen Herwarth Walden. Beitrag In: Der Merker. SeptemberNr. Beitrag In: Carl Braum Hg.
Bei Flambert In: Pan. Neun Liebesepisoden. Verlag Die Muskete o. Roman, In: Maximilian Harden Hg. Band, Verlag der Zukunft, Berlin und K. MaiNr. Abschied von der Jugend.
Arnold Beer. SeptemberAxel Juncker Verlag Berlin. Gemeinsam mit Felix Weltsch, Anschauung und Begriff. Wolff Verlag Leipzig. Beitrag In: Schriftsteller, Verleger und Publikum.
Eine Rundfrage. Sowie Verzeichnis — Beitrag In: Hg. Franz Blei, Der Lose Vogel. Eine Monatsschrift. Kurt Pinthus Hg. Beitrag In: Die neue Rundschau. Fischer Berlin. Das Zaubertheater, Hg. Medardus das ist Franz BleiProkop d. Max Brod und Sylvester d.
Erik-Ernst SchwabachK. Tycho Brahes Weg zu Gott. Die erste Stunde nach dem Tode. Eine Gespenstergeschichte, K. Expressionistische ProsaLuchterhand Verlag, Darmstadt u. Vor Kaiser Rudolf II.
Das gelobte Land. Ein Buch der Schmerzen und Hoffnungen, K. Beitrag In: Das Flugblatt. Drama in einem Vorspiel und 3 Akten, K. Fischer Verlag Berlin. Beitrag In: Kurt Hiller Hg. Novellen, K. Verlag Paul Franke o. Das Buch der Liebe. Heidentum, Christentum, Judentum. Ein BekenntnisbuchBd.
Notwehr In: Die Entfaltung. Novellen an die Zeit, Hg. Max Krell, Rowohlt, Berlin. Anthologie junger Lyrik. Rudolf Kayser Hg. Franzi, oder Eine Liebe zweiten Ranges. Musik- u. Musik- und Theatererlebnisse der zwanziger Jahre. Beitrag In: Paul Stefan Hg.
Fischer Verlag, Berlin. Reihe 2. Fischer Verlag,,,, Frankfurt a. Mai bis Heft Juli SammelbandKronos Wien. Zauberreich der Liebe. Roman, Verlag Paul Zsolnay Berlin u. Beitrag In: Aus unbekannten Schriften. Geburtstag, Lambert Schneider Verlag Berlin. Piscator u. SchwejkIn: Siegfried Jacobsohn u.
Lord Byron kommt aus der Mode. Eine Liebe zweiten Ranges. Roman, Verlag Paul Zsolnay Wien ; 2. Beitrag In: Paul Eipper, Tiere um uns. JahrbuchZsolnay Berlin u. Stefan Rott oder Das Jahr der Entscheidung. Linksfront Nr. In: Hermann Kesten Hg. Herbig  Berlin-Grunewald und Heinrich Heine. Zum Klaus Mann, Die Sammlung. Literarische Monatsschrift. Jahrgang, Heft 6, Querido Verlag Amsterdam.
Lessing, G. Lewycka, Marina Lex. Wer bin ich? Du bist du. Feiern verbinden Longardt Leben im Jahreskreis Herbst u. Was ich auch schon kann Zwischen Sommer Und Herbst - T-Wald* - Landeinwärts: In Memory Of Hermann Hesse (CD) machen wir es immer Formen des Zusammenlebens im Kindergarten Davon haben wir nichts gewusst!
Pflegebereich, Altenpflege, Verhaltens,-u. Luzik, R. Lynn, Kenneth S. Arbeit m. Mayr, Ulrich Wer war denn das? Nein, du! McMillen, S. Pflegebereich, kranken,-Alten u. Erich Menden, Erich Wie funktioniert das? Nach innen. Feiern, Weihnachten Feste u. Erzieher, Lehrer u. Lehren, Lehrer u. Milne, A. Milz, F. Kultus u. Sport Stuttgart Kooperation zw. Kindergarten u. Myers, David G.
Neumann, A. Arbeit mit behind. Kannst du mich finden? Buck Pearl S. Feiern, Erntedank St. Feiern, St. Verlag Philipp Reclam Jun. Plauen Plaut, Joseph Pleticha H. Wirkung Geschichte u. Pratz-Thiel Great American Stories - incl. Gewitter, Regenbogen, Schnee, Wetter, Wieso? Kennst du Robert? Rowling, K. Das rote Telefon Salate Snacks und Co.
Pflegebereich, innere Medizin, med. Krankheitslehre, Hintergrundinfos, pfleg. Schlauch, Rudolf Schlecht, Reinhold W. Schlemmer, J. Schmidt, D. G Osteoporose Ist Knochenschwund vermeidbar? Schmidt, H. Schmidt, K. Reaktionen, chem. Lernen f. Paare, Gruppen u. Siehst du mich? Spiel- u. Monroe, M. Dietrich, S. Institut das SOSKinderdorf e. Spengler Dr. Unlike Harry, who sees his life as one unit whole, I see my own as at least four different lives each emerging out of the other.
Many of the essays I have marked in the part-time sector have been couched in a similar idiom. This particular writer concludes his musings on Steppenwolf with the words: But what is all this to Bob Corbett? An important exchange between text and reader has taken place, to the point of galvanising this reader into communicating his agitation to. I suggest that here lies the crux of the matter. As Jeffrey L. For the reader of Steppenwolf, the author assumes the position of a guide, a Magister Ludi who holds the keys to understanding, contentment and wisdom.
And despite the fact that we are supposed to be living in an anti-paternalistic age, many a Hesse reader will still happily play the game of becoming a humble disciple in a magic world and of diligently learning the rules that promise achievement and access to a more informed, holistic and satisfying existence.
As such it strikes me as painfully ironic that in Steppenwolf the same siren songs are at work as in current recruiting copy issued by establishments of higher education. The complicating factor of an authentic, autobiographical dimension — the anarchy of personal and real-life experience — is eliminated in Steppenwolf, by means of a series of codes, of which the separation of man and wolf-beast, Hermann and Hermione, life and art, the natural and the denatured, are the most obvious.
Such stylisations may well alienate — even irritate — the scholar. Ultimately, there is no way round it: to. In: Hesse. A Collection of Critical Essays. By Theodore Ziolkowski. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall However, before he can really understand the origin of his unease, his loneliness, alienation and sexual frustration, he must go through a series of vertiginous experiences and a journey of self-discovery.
These are firmly tied to the world of the marvellous, the world of magic potions, and fairies good and bad Hermine and Pablo. Above them all towers the benevolent wizard in the guise of Mozart, who holds the key to wisdom, serenity and inner peace. In this sense, the novel elicits the same response that such tales have always elicited: its archetypal paradigm allows the reader to project onto the simple fable his or her own idiosyncratic interpretation.
It is precisely because in Steppenwolf arguments are played out in an imaginary realm, rather than the real, that the ordinary reader feels able to partake in the intellectual game and to follow its co-ordinates into abstract space.
A good measure of auto- didactic effort also plays its part. This would also mean rejecting the more fanciful or idio- syncratic interpretations of Steppenwolf that are sometimes offered in seminars.
Stuttgart Like Bob Corbett on the internet, some will readily confuse their personal experiences with those of Harry Haller.
In every instance it will be my job to discourage one-sided and extravagant approaches to the text and to draw the discussion back into the safe limits of traditional literary criticism. However, there are moments when I begin to question my own reluctance to follow students on their more uncharted trails of interpretation.
This type of essay has a tendency to emerge as the most uncontroversial focus for mature undergraduates. Almost without exception they tend to take their cue from Theodore Ziolkowski,8 and write eloquently and sensitively about the way Hesse uses music, traditional and new, as the paradigm behind the learn- ing process of Harry Haller. The following quotation from just such an essay provides a characteristic example: In the programme of self-discovery Harry learns that harmony is the result of the melody, Harry, and the counter-melody, Steppenwolf.
And in another essay we read: Harry Haller employs the metaphor of music to explain the duality of his own personality, to express the Dionysian and the Apollonian aspects of his character.
He selects different types of music to express these extremes. His intellectual persona is in harmony with the classical world of Mozart whose music opens new vistas of the divine. Music as metaphor seems to be the immediately obvious and attractive dimen- sion of Steppenwolf. As a non-conceptual medium — beyond argument, ideo- logy and thought processes — music offers a ready-made key with which to unlock the narrative and gain access to an undefined meaning.
Essays on music in Steppenwolf tend, almost without exception, to be eloquent and perceptive and yet, perhaps inevitably, also vague and non-committal. It is rather more difficult to mete out a fair academic assessment of essays by students who bring to the study of literature skills and knowledge acquired 8 Theodore Ziolkowski: The Steppenwolf: A Sonata in Prose. Princeton And yet I felt unable to find good arguments to counter the claims made and I decided to leave the reference unchallenged.
Clearly the student, as a scientist, was draw- ing parallels and making associations which arose from her own particular set of cultural co-ordinates. Who was I to disagree? More tricky still are references in essays which establish too ready a link with recent public events.
As a result of the catastrophic events of September 11,every previously held ideological assumption of the self has been similarly shattered. The immediate pedagogic reflex would normally be a terse comment on the inappropriateness of forging links between fiction of and a real event that takes place some 70 years later. I am beginning to accept that the value of the text cannot be established solely in terms of the extent to which it meets the narrow parameters of aca- demic expectation.
Rather, I now feel that it must be measured in terms of the authenticity of response it activates in the reader, any reader. The experience of C. The cult of the Madonna is explored, as is the symbolism of the monastery for which Hesse chose the name of Mariabronn as a fictionalisation of the existing institution at Maulbronn. This opens up a trail into the present, where we find the modern multi-media performer Madonna Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone involved in creating a myth in order to surround her theatrical appearances with an aura of archetypal femininity.
Jahrhundert, der sich mit Johann. Sein Leben in Bildern und Texten. Volker Michels. Jungs Archetypenlehre, die Bachofens Mythenwelt tiefenpsychologisch zu durchleuchten and auszudeuten suchte. Sein Arzt Dr. Lang war einer der ersten Psychotherapeuten, der in der Jungischen Archetypenlehre ausgebildet worden war. A Study in Theme and Structure. Band 4. New York In: The Germanic Review. Dieser hatte am Ende des Walter Erhart und Britta Herrmann. Lubich: Thomas Manns Der Zauberberg. In: Nietzsche.
Karl Schlechta. In: Hermann Hesse. Romane, Interpre- tationen. Sein Abschied vom Kloster wird somit zu einem real-symbolischen Ausbruch aus der patriarchalen Trutzburg des christlich-geistigen Gottvaters und zu einem leidenschaftlichen Eintauchen in die sinnen- und seelenberauschende Mutter Natur. San Francisco Goldmunds zahlreiche Liebesabenteuer reflektieren jedoch nicht nur den Jungischen Mutterarchetyp, sie figurieren auch als klassische Fallstudien der Kleinischen Objekt-Beziehungs-Theorie.
In: The Selected Melanie Klein. Juliet Mitchell. Ithaca: Cornell University The Myth and Cult of the Virgin Mary. In: Walther von der Vogelweide: Gedichte.
Zu weiteren Beispielen erotischer Marienlyrik siehe auch C. Jung: Symbole der Wandlung. In: Carl Gustav Jung. Freiburg Band 5. Zu seinem Kausalzusammenhang siehe Jung. Band 6. So malt zu Beginn der Weimarer Republik Otto Dix eine Reihe von muttermythischen Apotheosen, deren firmamentale Projektionen das Muttergottesbild erneut aufspal- ten in eine Madonna immaculata und vagina dentata.
Kunst als Therapie. Michael Limberg. Bad Liebenzell Reinbek bei Hamburg In Folge dessen wurde die geschlechtliche Sehnsucht nach dem Ursprung in der irdischen Mutter ver- wandelt in den geistigen Glaubenssprung zum himmlischen Vater. Sie war das Leben, die Liebe, die Wollust […], jetzt ist sie der Tod […].
In: Ders. Betrachtungen, Gedichte und Aquarelle. Auch in seinen Gedichten hat Hesse das Leben als eine Heimkehr zur Mutter immer wieder poetisch beschworen. Zu einer Dechiffrierung des eleusinischen Initiationsgeschehens in einem modernen Roman vgl. In: Euphorion. Gottfried Benn: Probleme der Lyrik.
Dieter Wellershoff. Band 1. Hier und Jetzt. Ciccone, alias Madonna. Camille Paglia: Sexual Personae. Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson. In Madonna zelebrierte bald eine internationale Jugendgeneration ihren sexuellen Sturm und Drang nach eroti- scher Selbstdarstellung und hedonistischer Selbstverwirklichung. Karl Ermert und Brigitte Striegnitz. Rehburg- Loccum So wurde das Leistungsprinzip des Kapitalismus, seine protestantische Arbeitsethik, durch das Lustprinzip ersetzt, bzw.
Entsprechend sang und tanzte, strippte und schauspielte sich Madonna mit erotisch eiserner Disziplin ganz nach oben. Die Frau als Ersatzreligion, diese fundamentale Umkehrung aller christlichen Werte zeichnet sich bereits zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts ab. Die Geschichte des Die politisch-demokratische Frauenemanzipation im ersten Drittel des Jahrhunderts, sowie ihre theoretisch-praktische Weiterentwicklung im letz- ten Drittel des Andreas Solbach.
Yet this novel represents a movement away from a merely static allegory to nature as a more vibrant allegorical expression of human reality and suffering. Unterm Rad is, in this reading, not seen as a set-piece satire on Wilhelmine pedagogic practice, but as presenting a sinister reality in which the protagonist himself plays a part in his own destruction.
The figure of Hans Heilner, although treated with a liberal dose of irony, is a potential saviour. True independence resides in the imagination and leads to a flight back into childhood, a pathological feature that helps to explain his eventual defeat.
Reinbek Amsterdam In: Germanistik — Forschungsstand und Perspektiven. In: Orbis Linguarum 21 Gerade an dieser Satire findet Mark Boulby vieles auszusetzen: On its surface, of course, the book is an unbridled satirical attack upon the Swabian educational system; the reflective commentary of Hermann Lauscher and Peter Camenzind has hardened into obtrusive polemics, indeed into diatribe.
Much of the satire is of the conventional kind […]. But Beneath the Wheel is not a great satirical novel, it is too obvious, too blatant and has grave formal defects. Die Geschichte von Emil Sinclairs Jugend. Unterm Rad. Jahrhundert, Bd. Frankfurt ; Eugene L. Autobiography and the Confessional Imagination. Ithaca: Cornell University Press Band 7. SW2, S. Aus der Handlungslogik jedenfalls resul- tiert das Scheitern nicht zwingend, denn nach Heilners Verschwinden ist zumindest theoretisch Raum zur erneuten Anpassung an die Schulnorm gegeben; auch beginnt erst dann der wirkliche Abstieg Giebenraths, der schnell seine Klimax im Zusammenbruch erreicht.
Von seinen Kameraden. Stelzig, S. Aber Heilner hing doch an ihm, weil er ihn brauchte. Und er unterlag im Kampf zwischen Freundespflicht und Ehrgeiz. Heilner entzog sie ihm unwillig und blickte beleidigt beiseite, suchte auch sogleich einen andern Platz und verschwand in die hintersten Reihen des Zuges. Carl Schmitt: Der Begriff des Politischen. Berlin Giebenraths evidentielle Erfahrungen sind eben nicht das Resultat von rhetorischer Manipulation, sondern wirklich erlebt.
Andererseits bringt diese Forderung nach exemplarischer Aufrichtigkeit auch erneut die Gefahr eindeutiger ideologischer Sinnzuweisung mit sich, der sich der Autor durch die Geschichte seines gescheiterten Helden zu entziehen hofft. Angelika Rauch-Rapaport. This involves analysing the rhetorical and allegorical language with which women are introduced, leading to consideration of the male-female relationships in terms of British object relations psychoanalysis and attachment theory Klein, Winnicott, Bion, Bowlby and recent research at the Tavistock Centre.
The trauma of the unavailable mother in infancy is not broached directly in the novel; instead, her striking absence is com- plemented by examples of the melancholic genre where the hero often does not know what he has lost or is missing.
Hesse provides extreme experiences of total con- sciousness and mental transcendence or total sensuality without a real connection to the woman- m other. A split personality is found in several of the later novels. Melancholia names that state of mind which results from not being able to mourn a loss. It is these unconscious fantasies of the maternal-object, the good and the bad breast, that Klein has theorised in her work, which is based on infant observation and on child and adult analysis.
In: Sigmund Freud: Standard Edi- tion. London: Hogarth — Or was it with- drawn abruptly or too early? They do not quite know what they have lost and roam through the world, suffering from a tremendous loss and attempting to find themselves. In Hesse the dream of self-sufficiency and self-realisation is a substitute fantasy in which the object is idealised and kept at bay instead of internalised and expressed in a fulfilling relationship with another in the here and now.
The encounter with others seems always to be in the service of the I, the ego on its way to an ego-ideal. Standard Edition. Although there are reminiscences of the one left behind or dead, as well as interspersed descriptions of basking in the woes of loss, the people themselves rarely touch the hero; he cannot actually integrate parts of them into his personality.
These beings are transformed into abstract qualities, into ideas, often as inspirations for the would-be poet or inhibited artist-genius. There is hardly, if ever, a give-and-take relationship. Community and mutual relations are side- stepped for an imagined harmony with elements of nature. It may be interesting to note here that Hesse had a mental breakdown after his children were born, as if the power of creation turned against him by producing others — who made demands on the self — instead of more selves.
Of more significance, however, might be what some critics see as an ana- logy to Faust II, the unavoidable journey to the terrifying realm of mothers.
In: Seven Servants. In both cases, the mother becomes a life-threatening, instead of a life-giving, creative force. Who wants to accept that they had a terrifying, sadistic, vengeful or simply destructive mother? The mysterious name of Abraxas in Demian turns out to be a symbol of reconciliation between a good god and a demonic god.
In: op. Psychoanalytically it is a symbol of the universal ambivalence of love and hate, wanting to be good and loving but also bad and revengeful. It is as if the suffering, the searching, is a thing of the past; the voice speaks from a different, elevated, transcending point of view.
In other words, the narrator is both patient and analyst at the same time, without the technique of interior monologue or omnipotent narrator.
These are often passages which strike me as almost baroque in style, as exempli- fied by the following passages from Peter Camenzind SW2, Pp. SW2, p. Kristeva also makes the argument that the abjection of the mother underlies the creative, narcis- Zwischen Sommer Und Herbst - T-Wald* - Landeinwärts: In Memory Of Hermann Hesse (CD) process of writing, of replacing the mother with language.
Abjection, with a meaning broadened to take in subjective diachrony, is a precondition of narcissism. An Essay on Abjection. When Peter hears this, he gets up to get a drink of water because he is thirsty, yet he does not offer any water to his dying, struggling mother. Secondly, we are struck by the hesitation of his few tears that did not really want to flow. Subsequently, he remembers this death as a serene and sublime experience.
In the novel there is a motive for Peter not feeling close to his mother: she is not there for him, does not share his enthusiasm about his studies; she has resigned herself to a harsh life of toil, her own desires having been thwarted long ago, and she does not protect Peter from the unwarranted beatings that he regularly receives from his father.
She is a cruel mother with almost no comfort or understanding, i. This adds to the atmosphere of deprivation in his childhood, in which sheer survival was the only drive. Nonetheless, the mother is described as having been beautiful, if ruined by hard labour and the frustration of her desires. Peter holds on to the beautiful in his choice of women that he falls in love with or else reveres from afar. But these are all women who frustrate his desire in the end.
In his grandiose state, the hero does not need anyone, feels estranged from other people, does not love his fellow human beings, flees into nature and writes without a sense of humanity; in fact, his ideal achievement would be, as he says, to write a story without people in it.
He compares it to a divine and hence idealised, purified love, without passion and disappointment. Even his longing for something that would fulfil him and attenuate his melancholic suffering is transformed into something noble and sublime.
There are indeed allusions to this state of longing being of divine nature. The narrator often couches the melancholic longing and despair in metaphors of mother and child or of a return home. When the emo- tional downturn hits Peter Camenzind, after his euphoria over his friendship with Richard, he thinks he could escape the loss of this friend by devaluing friendship and moving on to the next thing in life.
Peter never really finds her and the suffering and longing goes on because he could never internalise her as a good object that would then protect him from feeling empty and guilty of having survived. The friend to whom Peter becomes attached instead is the wine, equally idealised as a god, a friend, a mother, and a loving and seductive child in whose eyes the memory of par- adise is refreshed.
Metaphorically here the wine stands for the good breast. After his thwarted expectation of marrying Elizabeth, Peter feels little again, even broken and he wails like a little boy.
No narrator ever comments that these exalted states of love, with a mother seemingly incorporated into the psyche of the self, are delu- sions, and, consequently, Hesse does not judge his heroes overtly. Nonetheless, Hesse makes it clear that these idealisations of existential experience enrich the life of the mind and are pre- requisite for becoming an artist, whether it is sculpting the faces of loved- but-left women into figures of saints or writing a story about the Franciscan love of creation.
As a consequence, in fan- tasy, the infant fears the retaliation of a persecuting mother-object. Goldmund returns to the cathedral town, planning to meet Master Niklas again and to create works of art — as if he and his daughter had only been waiting for the moment of his return — he muses about the familiarity of the sights and sounds of the town.
What has changed is that his inspiration has died and the once admired daughter has not only turned ugly but also against him. But after having spilt a few warm tears, Goldmund, with the help of the sickly girl Marie, makes the transition to his omnipotent and narcissistic self that is confident about being a match for an empress because, as we learn from the text, this new woman reminded him of the image of his mother as he had carried it in his heart when a boy at Mariabronn, the mere idol of a mother.
An idea from Freud, which many psychoanalysts repeat, is that if you cannot remember something and work it through you are bound to repeat it. Thus in prison Goldmund ruminates on whether he should either flatter or kill the priest in order to escape. From this results a feeling of loss and emptiness, but also the drive to fill the void again and again with ever more objects.
This drive to fill the void underlies the manic phase of depression. Abraham in fact speaks of a canni- Zwischen Sommer Und Herbst - T-Wald* - Landeinwärts: In Memory Of Hermann Hesse (CD) feast in the unconscious fantasy of mania. Since he later fantasises about death as a female quality, what he drinks in once more here is the Earth Mother and her destructive side.
In: Stand- ard Edition. He flirts with death as if it were a mother and a lover, while not surrendering to its allure but celebrating the feasts of the sur- vivors instead. He would be truly melancholic, as he would be the only, lonely and forever guilty survivor, after having destroyed all his objects.
Freud formulated his discovery of the pre-genital stages in libidinal development as an anal-sadistic phase, and an earlier oral-sadistic phase in which the infant feels and fantasises cannibalistic impulses.
In a secondary regression there is a further slide backwards to a phase in which the melancholic re-incorporates the expelled object, but only once it is dead and used up. In: Sigmund Freud: Standard Edition. This paper offers a reading of the early novel Peter Camenzind from an ecocritical perspective.
Placing the work in the context of the development of ecological ideas in Germany and elsewhere, it considers the ways in which nature is presented as an idyll available only to those equipped properly to perceive it. The novel is remark- able for its focus on nature as a problematic area, having been written at a time which had yet to experience the full impact of mass tourism, and even more so for its prescriptive solution to what Hesse perceived as the endangered idyll.
The title of this chapter may appear to contain an anachronism. Even now it needs some explanation, starting with the role of literature. A primary reason for the study of litera- ture is that literary texts are capable of envisaging complexities of intercon- nections that are profoundly revelatory about ourselves and the world we inhabit.
One of the greatest advantages of the literary mode is that it allows the self-contradictory, the inconsistent and the unresolved to flourish. Eco- logical thinking is nothing if not a network of interconnections which can be self-contradictory and difficult to resolve; as a medium for imagining the possibilities of ecology, literature, then, is peculiarly well suited.
The next question which arises, however, is what those possibilities might be. Though the complexity of the issues involved militates against any easy definitions, it is nevertheless possible to isolate some of the elements which together make up what we broadly call ecological ideas.
The ecologist world view is holis- tic, that is, all things both organic and inorganic are interrelated and inter- dependent; interfering with one will have unpredictable effects on others.
Ecologism must be based on scientific understanding of the global effects of human interference in nature, but is characterised by a critical stance towards the effects of science in its technological guise on global ecology. Human beings are a part of nature, but have no superior status or special right to exist within it.
A radical change in economic, political and social structures, ecologists argue, is essential if disaster is to be avoided. Nature needs to be placed at the centre of our thinking and of our actions.
In summary, then, ecologism is holistic, critically scientific, ecocentric, prescriptive and apocalyptic. Other constituents include varying admixtures of misanthropism and mysticism. The text is an elegy for a tree, which has now reached the end of its natural life: Leb wohl, mein lieber Pfirsichbaum! Du hast ein Schicksal gehabt, wie es deinesgleichen zukommt und ansteht. SW14, p. While it amounts to ecological observation, it is little more than an aside.
This chapter will consider Peter Camenzind and one or two other texts from an ecological point of view; that is, imagining the fiction in an ecological framework, and considering the fiction against the background of what was known, or could be imagined, about human impact on the environment around the turn of the century.
Ecocriticism, I should note, is a movement rather than a method. Never- theless, there are certain features which can be identified as common to most of the ecocritical and nature-orientated, holistic Zwischen Sommer Und Herbst - T-Wald* - Landeinwärts: In Memory Of Hermann Hesse (CD) of literature that have been gathering momentum in the US and Britain for around 15 years.
In: Hermann Hesse und die Politik. In Beziehung zur Zukunft bleiben. Broadly, developments in ecocriticism can be broken into two main areas: firstly, the study of literature or any other cultural artefact which is nature- orientated, often with the aim of supporting or reinforcing environmental ideas or activism.
Secondly, reading texts or understanding cultural phenomena in a manner which is influenced and shaped by ecological ideas or the science of ecology. There is a division among ecocritics between those who regard nature as an objective reality, a real-existing phenomenon which we experi- ence daily, and those who view it as a construct, either a construct of our per- ception — that is, the nature we perceive is not objective nature, and nature only exists as a result of our perceptions — or as a former real-existing nature which has now been so tainted by human impact that there is actually no such thing as nature.
Nature, in this view, is a myth. However, all would agree that critically questioning conceptions of nature and analysing representations of the mutual interrelationship between people and the non-human world are the proper study of ecocriticism. Several ecocritics, in attempting to define what they do, have resorted to posing the questions to be asked of texts. For this topic, one of the more important sources was clearly Goethe, the impor- tance of whom for Hesse has been well documented.
In both cases human beings and nature also appear not in the con- ventional Judaeo-Christian hierarchy, but as part of the same ethical con- tinuum. Widers Das Gewissen steht auf, Lebensbilder dt. Leiber, Prof. Lempp, R. Lessing, G. Lewycka, Marina Lex. Lindner, Heidi Hrsg. Wer bin ich? Du bist du. Wenn wir manchmal Angst haben Was ich auch schon kann Pflegebereich, Altenpflege, Verhaltens,-u. Luzik, R. Lynn, Kenneth S. Arbeit m.
Kurzdokumentation zum Tag Nein, du! McMillen, S. Gesellschaften Jugend u. Nach innen. Rolf u. Feiern, Weihnachten Feste u. Milne, A. Milz, F. Kultus u. Sport Min. Jugend,Fa Min. Erzieher, Lehrer u. Lehren, Lehrer u. Kindergarten u. Mortimer, Charles E.
Myers, David G. Jugendstimmen Die Pflege der Kinder u. Arbeit mit behind. Kannst du mich finden? Buck Pearl S. Buck Pecher Dr. Pestalozzi, Hans P. Feiern, St. Eine christliche Unterweis Kennst du den Weg? Musil Materialien zur interkulturellen Erz. Plauen Plaut, Joseph Pleticha H. Christian, Andreas Prof. Wie sicher sind unsere Lebensmittel? Erich Rauch, Erich Kennt ihr Blauland?
Rakow, Dr. Gewitter, Regenbogen, Schnee, Wetter, Wieso? Kennst du Robert? Rowling, Joanne K. Rowling, K Joanne Rowling, K. Joanne Rowling, K. Salbert, Ursula Salinger, J. Pflegebereich, innere Medizin, med. Krankheitslehre, Hintergrundinfos, pfleg. Inhalte, Diagnosen, Behandlung Reha-u.
Schlauch, Ingar. Schlauch, Rudolf Schlecht, Reinhold W. Schlemmer, J. Schuljahr Mensch und Umwelt 9. Mathematik 7. Schmidt, D. G Schmidt, H. Schmidt, H. Osteoporose Ist Knochenschwund vermeidbar? Schmidt, K. Schnieper, Claudia Schnitzer Dr. G Schnitzer Dr. Reaktionen, chem. Schultz, I. Thun, Frie Schulz v. Die Weber Dichtung und Wirklichkeit Anleitung z. Lernen f. Paare, Gruppen u.
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