Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl)

What makes the box set of this album so valuable is its rarity. Only were produced and each was hand numbered.

The tour acted as a rehearsal for their studio time: Led Zeppelin was recorded in just 36 hours. On most Led Zeppelin albums, the type is a nearly-neon orange color like the photo above. When this LP first went to press, a few sleeves were printed with the words in a turquoise color.

The band changed their mind at the last minute and very few of these early pressings exist, but they are highly identifiable. Just a year after the release of Sgt. The album also had its fair share of drama, considering that the band would break up injust over a year after its release. Original pressings of this album are highly sought after and could potentially be worth thousands of dollars.

Like the Sgt. Pepper album, all of the original pressings of The White Album have serial numbers. A performer who recorded too strongly or not strongly enough would be moved away from or nearer to the mouth of the cone. The number and kind of instruments that could be recorded were limited. Brass instruments, which recorded well, often substituted instruments such as cellos and bass fiddles, which did not. In some early jazz recordings, a block of wood was used in place of the snare drumwhich could easily overload the recording diaphragm.

It was intended only for visual study of the recording and could not play back the sound. The recording medium was a sheet of soot-coated paper wrapped around a rotating cylinder carried on a threaded rod.

A stylusattached to a diaphragm through a series of levers, traced a line through the soot, creating a graphic record of the motions of the diaphragm as it was minutely propelled back and forth by the audio-frequency variations in air pressure.

In the spring of another inventor, Charles Crossuggested that the process could be reversed by using photoengraving to convert the traced line into a groove that would guide the stylus, causing the original stylus vibrations to be recreated, passed on to the linked diaphragm, and sent back into the air as sound. Edison's invention of the phonograph soon eclipsed this idea, and it was not until that yet another inventor, Emile Berlineractually photoengraved a phonautograph recording into metal and played it back.

Scott's early recordings languished in French archives until Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) scholars keen to resurrect the sounds captured in these and other types of early experimental recordings tracked them down. Rather than using rough 19th-century technology to create playable versions, they were scanned into a computer and software was used to convert their sound-modulated traces into digital audio files.

Brief excerpts from two French songs and a recitation in Italian, all recorded inare the most substantial results. The phonographinvented by Thomas Edison in[10] could both record sound and play it back. The earliest type of phonograph sold recorded on a thin sheet of tinfoil wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder.

A stylus connected to a sound-vibrated diaphragm indented the foil into the groove as the cylinder rotated. The stylus vibration was at a right angle to the recording surface, so the depth of the indentation varied with the audio-frequency changes in air Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) that carried the sound. This arrangement is known as vertical or "hill-and-dale" recording.

The sound could be played back by tracing the stylus along the recorded groove and acoustically coupling its resulting vibrations to the surrounding air through the diaphragm and a so-called "amplifying" horn.

The crude tinfoil phonograph proved to be of little use except as a novelty. It was not until the late s that an improved and much more useful form of the phonograph was marketed. The new machines recorded on easily removable hollow wax cylinders and the groove was engraved into the surface rather than indented.

The targeted use was business communication, and in that context, the cylinder format had some advantages. When entertainment use proved to be the real source of profits, one seemingly negligible disadvantage became a major problem: the difficulty of making copies of a recorded cylinder in large quantities. At first, cylinders were copied by acoustically connecting a playback machine to one or more recording machines through flexible tubing, an arrangement that degraded the audio quality of the copies.

Later, a pantograph mechanism was used, but it could only produce about 25 fair copies before the original was too worn down. During a recording session, as many as a dozen machines could be arrayed in front of the performers to record multiple originals. Still, a single "take" would ultimately yield only a few hundred copies at best, so performers were booked for marathon recording sessions in which they had to repeat their most popular numbers over and over again.

Bysuccessful molding processes for manufacturing prerecorded cylinders had been developed. The wax cylinder got a competitor with the advent of the Gramophone, which was patented by Emile Berliner in The vibration of the Gramophone's recording stylus was horizontal, parallel to the recording surface, resulting in a zig-zag groove of constant depth.

This is known as lateral recording. Berliner's original patent showed a lateral recording etched around the surface of a cylinder, but in practice, he opted for the disc format. The Gramophones he soon began to market were intended solely for playing prerecorded entertainment discs and could not be used to record. The spiral groove on the flat surface of a disc was relatively easy to replicate: a negative metal electrotype of the original record could be used to stamp out hundreds or thousands of copies before it wore out.

Early on, the copies were made of hard rubberand sometimes of celluloidbut soon a shellac -based compound was adopted. In the UK, proprietary use of the name Gramophone continued for another decade until, in a court case, it was adjudged to have become genericized and so could be used freely by competing disc record makers, Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) the result that in British English a disc record is called a "gramophone record" and "phonograph record" is traditionally assumed to mean a cylinder.

Not all cylinder records are alike. They were made of various soft or hard waxy formulations or early plastics, sometimes in unusual sizes; did not all use the same groove pitch; and were not all recorded at the same speed. Early brown wax cylinders were usually cut at about rpmwhereas later cylinders ran at rpm for clearer and louder sound at the cost of reduced maximum playing time.

As a medium for entertainment, the cylinder was already losing the format war with the disc bybut the production of entertainment cylinders did not entirely cease until and use of the format for business dictation purposes persisted into the s. Disc records, too, were sometimes made in unusual sizes, or from unusual materials, or otherwise deviated from the format norms of their eras in some substantial way. The speed at which disc records were rotated was eventually standardized at about 78 rpm, but other speeds were sometimes used.

The standard material for discs changed from shellac to vinylalthough vinyl had been used for some special-purpose records since the early s and some 78 rpm shellac records were still being made in the late s. Until the mids records were played on purely mechanical record players usually powered by a wind-up spring motor.

The sound was "amplified" by an external or internal horn that was coupled to the diaphragm and stylusalthough there was no real amplification: the horn simply improved the efficiency with which the diaphragm's vibrations were transmitted into the open air.

The recording process was, in essence, the same non-electronic setup operating in reverse, but with a recording, stylus engraving a groove into a soft waxy master disc and carried slowly inward across it by a feed mechanism. The advent of electrical recording in made it possible to use sensitive microphones to capture the sound and greatly improved the audio quality of records. A much wider range of frequencies could be recorded, the balance of high and low frequencies could be controlled by elementary electronic filters, and the signal could be amplified to the optimum level for driving the recording stylus.

The leading record labels switched to the electrical process in and the rest soon followed, although one straggler in the US held out until There was a period of nearly five years, from to when the top " audiophile " technology for home sound reproduction consisted of a combination of electrically recorded records with the specially-developed Victor Orthophonic Victrolaan acoustic phonograph that used waveguide engineering and a folded horn to provide a reasonably flat frequency response.

The first electronically amplified record players reached the market only a few months later, around the start ofbut at first, they were much more expensive and their audio quality was impaired by their primitive loudspeakers ; they did not become common until the late s. Electrical recording increased the flexibility of the process, but the performance was still cut directly to the recording medium, so if a mistake was made the whole recording was spoiled.

Disc-to-disc editing was possible, by using multiple turntables to play parts of different "takes" and recording them to a new master disc, but switching sources with split-second accuracy was difficult and lower sound quality was inevitable, so except for use in editing some early sound films and radio recordings it was rarely done.

Electrical recording made it more feasible to record one part to disc and then play that back while playing another part, recording both parts to a second disc. This and conceptually related techniques, known as overdubbingenabled studios to create recorded "performances" that feature one or more artists each singing multiple parts or playing multiple instrument parts and that therefore could not be duplicated by the same artist or artists performing live. The first commercially issued records using overdubbing were released by the Victor Talking Machine Company in the late s.

However, overdubbing was of limited use until the advent of audio tape. Use of tape overdubbing was pioneered by Les Paul in the s. Wire recording or Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) wire recording is an analog type of audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on thin steel or stainless steel wire.

The wire is pulled rapidly across a recording head, which magnetizes each point along the wire in accordance with the intensity and polarity of the electrical audio signal being supplied to the recording head at that instant. By later drawing the wire across the same or a similar head while the head is not being supplied with an electrical signal, the varying magnetic field presented by the passing wire induces a similarly varying electric current in the head, recreating the original signal at a reduced level.

Magnetic wire recording was replaced by magnetic tape recording, but devices employing one or the other of these media had been more or less simultaneously under development for many years before either came into widespread use.

The principles and electronics involved are nearly identical. Wire recording initially had the advantage that the recording medium itself was already fully developed, while tape recording was held back by the need to improve the materials and methods used to manufacture the tape. Magnetic recording was demonstrated in principle as early as by Valdemar Poulsen in his telegraphone. PVC clothing is common in GothPunkclothing fetish and alternative fashions. PVC is less expensive than rubberleather or latexwhich it is used to simulate.

The two main application areas for single-use medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components, for urine collection or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heart-lung bypass sets, hemodialysis sets etc.

In Europe the consumption of PVC for medical devices is approximately 85, tons each year. Almost one third of plastic-based medical devices are made from PVC. Flexible PVC flooring is inexpensive and used in a variety of buildings, including homes, hospitals, offices, and schools. Complex and 3D designs are possible, which are then protected by a clear wear layer. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel.

The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the buildup of dirt, which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics.

PVC may be extruded under pressure to encase wire rope and aircraft cable used for general purpose applications. PVC coated wire rope is easier to handle, resists corrosion and abrasion, and may be color-coded for increased visibility.

It is found in a variety of industries and environments both indoor and out. PVC has been used for a host of consumer products.

One of its earliest mass-market consumer applications was vinyl record production. More recent examples include wallcovering, greenhouses, home playgrounds, foam and other toys, custom truck toppers tarpaulinsceiling tiles and other kinds of interior cladding. PVC piping is cheaper than metals used in musical instrument making; it is therefore a common alternative when making instruments, often for leisure or for rarer instruments such as the contrabass flute.

Chlorinated polyvinyl chlorideCPVCas it is called, is produced by chlorination of aqueous solution of suspension PVC particles followed by exposure to UV light which initiates the free-radical chlorination. Degradation during service life, or after careless disposal, is a chemical change that drastically reduces the average molecular weight of the polyvinyl chloride polymer.

Since the mechanical integrity of a plastic depends on its high average molecular weight, wear and tear inevitably weakens the material.

Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment. Also known as microplasticsthese particles act like sponges and soak up persistent organic pollutants POPs around them.

Thus laden with high levels of POPs, the microparticles are often ingested by organisms in the biosphere. The researchers think that differences in the size and shape of the polymer molecules can explain why some accumulate more pollutants than others. Phthalates are contained in plastics at high percentages. Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses.

In a joint Swedish-Danish research team found a statistical association between allergies in children and indoor air levels of DEHP and BBzP butyl benzyl phthalatewhich is used in vinyl flooring. The SCENIHR report states that certain medical procedures used in high risk patients result in a significant exposure to DEHP and concludes there is still a reason for having some concerns about the exposure of prematurely born male babies to medical devices containing DEHP.

Risk assessment results have shown positive results regarding the safe use of High Molecular Weight Phthalates. They have all been registered for REACH and do not require any classification for health and environmental effects, nor are they on the Candidate List for Authorisation. High phthalates are not CMR carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproductionneither are they considered endocrine disruptors. The European Commission's findings published in the EU Official Journal on 13 April [49] confirm the outcome of a risk assessment involving more than 10 years of extensive scientific evaluation by EU regulators.

Following the recent adoption of EU legislation with the regard to the marketing and use of DINP in toys and childcare articles, the risk assessment conclusions clearly state that there is no need for any further measures to regulate the use of DINP.

In Europe and in some other parts of the world, the use of DINP in toys and childcare items has been restricted as a precautionary measure. In Europe, for example, DINP can no longer be used in toys and childcare items that can be put in the mouth even though the EU scientific risk assessment concluded that its use in toys does not pose a risk to human health or the environment.

The rigorous EU risk assessments, which include a high degree of conservatism and built-in safety factors, have been carried out under the strict supervision of the European Commission and provide a clear scientific evaluation on which to judge whether or not a particular substance can be safely used.

The FDA Paper titled "Safety Assessment of Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate DEHP Released from PVC Medical Devices" states that critically ill or injured patients may be at increased risk of developing adverse health effects from DEHP, not only by virtue of increased exposure relative to the general population, but also because of the physiological and pharmacodynamic changes that occur in these patients compared to healthy individuals. Lead had previously been frequently added to PVC to improve workability and stability.

Lead has been shown to leach into drinking water from PVC pipes. In Europe the use of lead-based stabilizers was gradually replaced. In the early s, the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride usually called vinyl chloride monomer or VCM was linked to cancers in workers in the polyvinyl chloride industry.

Specifically workers in polymerization section of a B. Goodrich plant near Louisville, Kentuckywere diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma also known as hemangiosarcomaa rare disease. PVC produces HCl upon combustion almost quantitatively related to its chlorine content. Extensive studies in Europe indicate that the chlorine found in emitted dioxins is not derived from HCl in the flue gases. Instead, most dioxins arise in the condensed solid phase by the reaction of inorganic chlorides with graphitic structures in char-containing ash particles.

Copper acts as a catalyst for these reactions. Studies of household waste burning indicate consistent increases in dioxin generation with increasing PVC concentrations. A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) pyrolysis of PVC".

Other EU studies indicate that PVC likely "accounts for the overwhelming majority of chlorine that is available for dioxin formation during landfill fires. The next largest sources of dioxin in the EPA inventory are medical and municipal waste incinerators.

For instance a study of commercial-scale incinerators showed no relationship between the PVC content of the waste and dioxin emissions. The report concludes that "no single material shows up as the best across all the human health and environmental impact categories, nor as the worst" but that the "risk of dioxin emissions puts PVC consistently among the worst materials for human health impacts. In Europe the overwhelming importance of combustion conditions on dioxin formation has been established by numerous researchers.

The single most important factor in forming dioxin-like compounds is the temperature of the combustion gases. Oxygen concentration also plays a major role on dioxin formation, but not the chlorine content. To comply with the EU emission limit of 0. Recent information is showing for example that dioxin levels in populations near incinerators in Lisbon and Madeira have not risen since the plants began operating in and respectively.

Several studies have also shown that removing PVC from waste would not significantly reduce the quantity of dioxins emitted. Your order is shipped to you when all the items in the order become available.

How much is shipping to my area? You can get an instant shipping quote from different carriers and methods during the checkout process. Do you ship WorldWide? We ship worldwide! We offer worldwide shipping on both sites, srcvinyl. What is a Backorder? Media Mail is a cost-effective way to send vinyl, cds, dvds and cassette tapes. Wood, stone and tile looks across the color palette. Warranty: Lifetime residential and years for commercial use.

Warranty: Lifetime residential and up to 20 years commercial warranties. For some floating floor jobs, that is all you need. Cali Bamboo recycled fiber underlayment. Blue Hawk polyethylene moisture barrier. Cost: 15 to 40 cents per square foot. Transition Strips. Smartcore transition strip. When it is used: On every stair to give the front edge a finished appearance.

When it is used: Glue-down flooring only. This table shows sample jobs based on these factors. Square Feet. Vinyl Plank Cost. Labor Cost. Total Cost.

Basement - Open Plan. These steps are vital for a successfully completed job:. Should you DIY vinyl plank flooring? Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) DIY if you:. Here are five great options for shopping for vinyl plank flooring online. Overall, the shopping experience is easy and enjoyable at Wayfair. Most allow you to shop online and pick it up in the store, which often saves shipping charges.

Build Direct The best part of the Build Direct site is the helpful information and guides. The Selection is good, with about products. Just beware, the flooring is sold with no warranty. How to Find a Quality Vinyl Plank Flooring Installer at a Fair Price The proven method of getting a combination of excellent installation and a fair price is to get estimates from multiple installers.

The next step is to narrow the list, and get estimates from your 3 or 4 top choices. Thank You! If so, please consider sharing it on social media. FAQs Q: How much does the quality really vary between the top manufacturers? Q: Is the additional price for waterproof vinyl flooring worth it?

Fuego Y Cristal - Penitencia - Dioses Dormidos (Cassette), Cotton Picker - Eddie Cochran - Legendary Masters Series #4 (Vinyl, LP), Not Human, Laulujen Nainen - Kauko Röyhkä & Narttu - Pois Valoista - Live 2012 (CD, Album), Bumpin Rap Tapes - Japanther - Tut Tut, Now Shake Ya Butt (CD, Album), Ψυχή Μοβόρα - Τσιτσάνης* - Θεοδωράκης* - Κόκοτας* - Ανέκδοτα Τραγούδια (Vinyl, LP, Album), Nevjerna Ženo - Vuco* - Vuco 2001. (Cassette, Album), Joey (Concl.) - Bob Dylan - Desire (8-Track Cartridge, Album), Nr. 6 Sehr Rasch (Sehr Rasch Und In Sich Hinein) - Robert Schumann, Wilhelm Kempff - Davidsbündlertä, Abtreibungsmord - Integrationshelfer - Letzter Halt Anatolia (CD, Album), Liquidator - Various - Chart Hits Of The Sixties Volume 4 (CD), DJ Happy Vibes - El Pepito (CD), Tales Of Spain - Carmen (19) - Fandangos In Space / Dancing On A Cold Wind (CD)

If there is no pad attachedsee the installation guide for whether it is required or at least allowed. Underlayment materials include recycled wood and bamboo fibers, cork, foam and other synthetic materials.

Some has a vapor barrier layer too. When it is used: All floating vinyl plank flooring should have underlayment pad to soften the floor and reduce the noise hard flooring can make. Synthetic is the most affordable. Premium cork costs the most. What it is: Vapor or moisture barrier is a waterproof layer of material used to protect the flooring from moisture below. It is installed with slight overlap and the seams sealed with waterproof tape. When it is used: When vinyl plank flooring is installed over concrete, which allows moisture transfer from below, vinyl plank is required.

But LVP is waterproof, right? What it is: These are strips of wood, synthetic or metal material that are fastened to the subfloor. They have slots in the sides for flooring to fit into. When it is used: When two flooring types meet, a transition strip is required to hide the seam. What it is: The piece of material on the front edge of a step is called a nose, nosing or bullnose.

What it is : This spread adhesive is applied with a roller to permanently adhere the planks to the subfloor. One gallon of glue covers square feet of flooring. Professional installers consider these factors when putting together an LVT installation estimate. Yes, especially a floating floor or peel and stick. Glue-down flooring is really pretty easy too, when the Installation Guide provided with the flooring you purchase is closely followed.

Stairs should definitely, for the sake of appearance and safety once installed, be left to pros, in our opinion. For jobs with no stairs, the hardest part comes before you start to install the flooring. The Installation Guide for your flooring will prove valuable for these steps.

If installation video tutorials are available, watch them a time or two. Each has similar filters to narrow your search.

Color, Customer Rating, Brand and more. The Brands carried by the stores vary quite a bit. Each store has one or two featured brands. Lowe sells a lot of Cali Bamboo vinyl plank flooring. All have good information on Warranty and Installation.

Recommended underlay, glue or other supplies are often shown. The layout at Lowes is the clearest and easy to use, in our opinion. The best part of the Build Direct site is the helpful information and guides.

The biggest problem is with Brands. You have a limited number — 3 currently, but it varies. Amazon has the best Reviews and Ratings section. This Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) the best part of shopping for luxury vinyl flooring on the site. There are more than 50 brandsbut most have only a few options-about total styles across those 50 brands.

The proven method of getting a combination of excellent installation and a fair price is to get estimates from multiple installers. There are so many installers in most areas, it can be a headache research them, make lots of calls, wait for sales agents to get back to you and set up appointments. Use our Free Estimates tool for bids from top installers in your area.

They are prescreened to be sure they are licensed and experienced. They know they are competing to get your flooring project. Once you have the estimates, review the qualifications and online reviews of each company, and choose one you believe offers quality installation at a good price. A: It can vary a considerable amount, but often depends on the price point and manufacturing techniques. In most cases, premium brands will have lines that are comparable to one another in terms of performance and price.

A: Click-lock planks that are part of a floating flooring system are popular for a reason — they are incredibly easy to install. If you plan to do it yourself, look for a brand with a lineup of click-lock vinyl flooring.

Q: Even though the wear layer affects the price, is it better to spend more for flooring with the thickest wear layer? A: Not necessarily. For vinyl flooring with a hard or rigid core, a circular saw is usually the cheapest option. You will need another saw for door frames, although an oscillating multi-tool will make quick work of those areas. A: That all depends on your needs. Having a plastic core with no wood in the planks is a plus, but you will still have an expensive issue on your hands if water reaches the subfloor.

If you need waterproof flooring for a bathroom or kitchen, tile is your best alternative. There is a serious collector culture around vinyl— so much so that there is even a TED talk about it. Sometimes called crate digging, dedicated collectors will hunt down rare vinyl records at estate sales and online auctions.

There is feverish competition for some of the most popular older albums and just a quick search will show an abundance of vinyl records for sale online. Dan Wade, head writer at JustCollecting. Yet an LP is an object you can hold, that you have to physically place on the turntable and play with a needle. Wade also says that album art presents a romantic draw for many collectors. The excitement and delight of hunting down rarities is addictive to many record collectors.

While some collectors cite a better listening experience as their reason for crate digging, there is also serious cash to be earned by the discovery and resale of some legendary albums.

Wade says there are even some record collectors in the mix who are doing it for the money. And, of course, there is crossover between these two groups. While many folks are selling their vinyl records online, it can also be easy to score at estate sales and thrift stores.

But you will encounter fakes on eBay, so go in with your eyes open. Rarity and age count for something, but the value of a used vinyl record can be ruined by poor condition. This, while nostalgic, greatly reduces the value of an album and sleeve. Are there stains or marks on the cover? The condition of the vinyl itself is obviously important, too. Records that have a shiny surface and can be played smoothly without jumps will be of greater value than those that are heavily used and blemished.

You also want to look out for warping—a vinyl in excellent condition will be completely flat. Here are eight valuable and rare vinyl records that you might stumble upon at your next estate sale. Tin stabilizers can be divided Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) two main groups, the first group containing those with tin-oxygen bonds and the second group with tin-sulfur bonds.

One of the most crucial additives are heat stabilizers. Once dehydrochlorination starts, it is autocatalytic. Many diverse agents have been used including, traditionally, derivatives of heavy metals lead, cadmium. Metallic soaps metal "salts" of fatty acids are common in flexible PVC applications, species such as calcium stearate. Tin mercaptides are widely used globally in rigid PVC applications due to their high efficiency and proven performance.

Typical usage levels are 0. Tin stabilizers have been in use for over 50 years by companies such as PMC organometallix and its predecessors. The choice of the best PVC stabilizer depends on its cost effectiveness in the end use application, performance specification requirements, processing technology and regulatory approvals.

PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs. PVC has high hardness and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties enhance with the molecular weight increasing but decrease with the temperature increasing. The heat stability of raw PVC is very poor, so the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product's properties.

The linear expansion coefficient of rigid PVC is small and has good flame retardancy, the limiting oxygen index LOI being up to 45 or more. As a thermoplastic, PVC has an inherent insulation that aids in reducing condensation formation and resisting internal temperature changes for hot and cold liquids.

PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties, but because of its higher polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non-polar polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene.

Since the dielectric constantdielectric loss tangent value, and volume resistivity are high, the corona resistance is not very good, and it is generally suitable for medium or low voltage and low frequency insulation materials. PVC is chemically resistant to Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl), salts, bases, fats, and alcohols, making it resistant to the corrosive effects of sewage, which is why it is so extensively utilized in sewer piping systems.

For example, PVC is resistant to fuel and some paint thinners. Some solvents may only swell it or deform it but not dissolve it, but some, like tetrahydrofuran or acetonemay damage it. Roughly half of the world's PVC resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for municipal and industrial applications. The most common type of gasket utilized in North America is a metal reinforced elastomer, commonly referred to as a Rieber sealing system. However, it must be carefully installed and bedded to ensure longitudinal cracking and overbelling does not occur.

Additionally, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, or heat-fused butt-fusion process, similar to joining high-density polyethylene HDPE pipecreating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage. In February the California Building Standards Code was updated to approve the use of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CPVC pipe for use in residential water supply piping systems. CPVC has been a nationally accepted material in the US since ; California, however, has permitted only limited use since The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an environmental impact statement resulting in a recommendation that the commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC.

PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electrical cables such as teck ; PVC used for this purpose needs to be plasticized. Flexible PVC coated wire and cable for electrical use has traditionally been stabilised with lead, but these are being replaced with calcium-zinc based systems. In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form hydrogen chloride fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardancy.

While hydrogen chloride fumes can also pose a health hazard in their own right, it dissolves in moisture and breaks down onto surfaces, particularly in areas where the air is cool enough to breathe, and is not available for inhalation. PVC is a common, strong but lightweight plastic used in construction.

It is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers. In the US and Canada, it is known as vinyl or vinyl siding. Other uses include fasciaand siding or weatherboarding. This material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainagebeing used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters and downspouts. Polyvinyl chloride is formed in flat sheets in a variety of thicknesses and colors.

As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the interior of the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and minimal extra cost see closed-cell PVC foamboard. Sheets are cut using saws and rotary cutting equipment. Plasticized PVC is also used to produce thin, colored, or clear, adhesive -backed films referred to simply as vinyl. These films are typically cut on a computer -controlled plotter see vinyl cutter or printed in a wide-format printer.

These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products, including car body stripes and stickers. PVC fabric is water-resistantused for its weather-resistant qualities in coats, skiing equipment, shoes, jacketsapronspatches Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) and sports bags. PVC fabric has a niche role in speciality clothing, either to create an artificial leather material or at times simply for its effect. PVC clothing is common in GothPunkclothing fetish and alternative fashions.

PVC is less expensive than rubberleather or latexwhich it is used to simulate. The two main application areas for single-use medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components, for urine collection or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heart-lung bypass sets, hemodialysis sets etc. In Europe the consumption of PVC for medical devices is approximately 85, tons each year.

Almost one third of plastic-based medical devices are made from PVC. Flexible PVC flooring is inexpensive and used in a variety of buildings, including homes, hospitals, offices, and schools. Complex and 3D designs are possible, which are then protected by a clear wear layer. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel.

The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the buildup of dirt, which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics.

PVC may be extruded under pressure to encase wire rope and aircraft cable used for general purpose applications. PVC coated wire rope is easier to handle, resists corrosion and abrasion, and may be color-coded for increased visibility.

It is found in a variety of industries and environments both indoor and out. PVC has been used for a host of consumer products. One of its earliest mass-market consumer applications was vinyl record production. More recent examples include wallcovering, greenhouses, home playgrounds, foam and other toys, custom truck toppers tarpaulinsceiling tiles and other kinds of interior cladding. PVC piping is cheaper than metals used in musical instrument making; it is therefore a common alternative when making instruments, often for leisure or for rarer instruments such as the contrabass flute.

Chlorinated polyvinyl chlorideCPVCas it is called, is produced by chlorination of aqueous solution of suspension PVC particles followed by exposure to UV light which initiates the free-radical chlorination. Degradation during service life, or after careless disposal, is a chemical change that drastically reduces the average molecular weight of the polyvinyl chloride polymer.

Since the mechanical integrity of a plastic depends on its high average molecular weight, wear and tear inevitably weakens the material. Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment. Also known as microplasticsthese particles act like sponges and soak up persistent organic pollutants POPs around them. Thus laden with high levels of POPs, the microparticles are often ingested by organisms in the biosphere.

The researchers think that differences in the size and shape of the polymer molecules can explain why some accumulate more pollutants than others. Phthalates are contained in plastics at high percentages. Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses.

In a joint Swedish-Danish research team found a statistical association between allergies in children and indoor air levels of DEHP and BBzP butyl benzyl phthalatewhich is used in vinyl flooring. The SCENIHR report states that certain medical procedures used in high risk patients result in a significant exposure to DEHP and concludes there is still a reason for having some concerns about the exposure of prematurely born male babies to medical devices containing DEHP.

Risk assessment results have shown positive results regarding the safe use of High Molecular Weight Phthalates. They have all been registered for REACH and do not require any classification for health and environmental effects, nor are they on the Candidate List for Authorisation. High phthalates are not CMR carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproductionneither are they considered endocrine disruptors.

The European Commission's findings published in the EU Official Journal on 13 April [49] confirm the outcome of a risk assessment involving more than 10 years of extensive scientific evaluation by EU regulators. Following the recent adoption of EU legislation with the regard to the marketing and use of DINP in toys and childcare articles, the risk assessment conclusions clearly state that there is no need for any further measures to regulate the use of DINP.

In Europe and in some other parts of the world, the use of DINP in toys and childcare items has been restricted as a precautionary measure. In Europe, for example, DINP can no longer be used in toys and childcare items that can be put in the mouth even though the EU scientific risk assessment concluded that its use in toys does not pose a risk to human health or the environment.

The rigorous EU risk assessments, which include a high degree of conservatism and built-in safety factors, have been carried out under the strict supervision of the European Commission and provide a clear scientific evaluation on which to judge whether or not a particular substance can be safely used.

The FDA Paper titled "Safety Assessment of Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate DEHP Released from PVC Medical Devices" states that critically ill or injured patients may be at increased risk of developing adverse health Various - Hard II Get (Vinyl) from DEHP, not only by virtue of increased exposure relative to the general population, but also because of the physiological and pharmacodynamic changes that occur in these patients compared to healthy individuals.

Lead had previously been frequently added to PVC to improve workability and stability. Lead has been shown to leach into drinking water from PVC pipes. In Europe the use of lead-based stabilizers was gradually replaced.

In the early s, the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride usually called vinyl chloride monomer or VCM was linked to cancers in workers in the polyvinyl chloride industry.

Specifically workers in polymerization section of a B. Goodrich plant near Louisville, Kentuckywere diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma also known as hemangiosarcomaa rare disease. PVC produces HCl upon combustion almost quantitatively related to its chlorine content.

Extensive studies in Europe indicate that the chlorine found in emitted dioxins is not derived from HCl in the flue gases. Instead, most dioxins arise in the condensed solid phase by the reaction of inorganic chlorides with graphitic structures in char-containing ash particles. Copper acts as a catalyst for these reactions. Studies of household waste burning indicate consistent increases in dioxin generation with increasing PVC concentrations.

A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC".

Other EU studies indicate that PVC likely "accounts for the overwhelming majority of chlorine that is available for dioxin formation during landfill fires. The next largest sources of dioxin in the EPA inventory are medical and municipal waste incinerators.

For instance a study of commercial-scale incinerators showed no relationship between the PVC content of the waste and dioxin emissions. The report concludes that "no single material shows up as the best across all the human health and environmental impact categories, nor as the worst" but that the "risk of dioxin emissions puts PVC consistently among the worst materials for human health impacts.

In Europe the overwhelming importance of combustion conditions on dioxin formation has been established by numerous researchers.

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