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EEG data were digitized at a rate of Hz with a Hz high cut-off filter and a 10 second time constant. The EEG data were re-referenced off-line to the average of both mastoids, and 56 Focus and pitch accent bandpass filtered at 0. Next, the data were segmented from ms before to ms after the onset of the critical words, with baseline correction from to 0 ms preceding word onset.
After this step, a semi-automatic artifact rejection procedure was applied. Finally, trials were averaged in each condition for each subject, and this average was used for further statistical analysis.
The approach naturally takes care of interactions between time points and electrodes by identifying clusters of significant differences between conditions in the time and space dimensions, and effectively controls the Type-1 error rate in the case of multiple comparisons. First, for every data point time-electrode point a simple dependent-samples t-test is performed giving uncorrected p-values.
Clusters of adjacent non-zero data points are computed, and for each cluster a cluster-level test statistic is calculated by taking the sum of all the individual t-statistics within that cluster. Next, a null-distribution is created as follows. Subject averages are randomly assigned to one of the two conditions several 57 Chapter 3 times times hereand for each of these randomizations, cluster-level statistics are computed.
For each randomization, the largest cluster-level statistic enters into the null distribution. Finally, the actually observed cluster-level test statistics are compared against the null distribution, and clusters falling in the highest or lowest 2. This procedure only allows for pair-wise comparisons. All 59 electrodes excluding the right mastoid electrodeand time points corresponding to an interval from CW onset to ms after CW onset, at Hz sampling rate were entered into the analysis for the grand averaged data.
Based on the statistical results of the semantic congruity effects, 59 electrodes and time points corresponding to the interval from to ms after CW onset were included in the tests.
For the statistical analysis of the DWs, we examined the main effects of Context and Accentuation, as well as their interaction. If the interaction was significant, further simple effect analysis were conducted. Figure 3. Given their topographical and latency characteristics, we classified these effects as N effects.
The onset of the critical words is at zero. In each condition, the thick line represents the waveforms elicited by incongruent words, while the thin line represents the waveforms elicited by congruent words.
Note that negative is plotted up. The statistical results of the semantic congruity effects in the four conditions. Note: n. Next, in an exploratory analysis we split up the data by subjects' sex, and found substantial differences between males and females see Figure 3. These results suggested that for females, the N effects did not differ as a function of Context or Accentuation.
For detailed label information, see the legend of Figure 3. The males, however, showed a different pattern of results see Figure 3.
For the conditions that show no significant effect, the topographies were plotted between 0. When explicitly testing Sex female, male in a mixed-model approach with Context and Accentuation as within-subject factors, and Sex as a between-subject factorwe did not find any significant interaction between Sex and the other factors.
Nevertheless, the different patterns of N effects for females and males, and the analyses on the separate groups hint at possible sex difference in the semantic processing. For visual illustration of the N effects, three sets of DWs in each of the four conditions are shown in Figure 3.
The difference waveforms between incongruent and congruent words for A. The waveforms were 10 Hz low pass filtered for illustration purposes only. Depth of semantic processing was evaluated by measuring N effects elicited by semantically incongruent words relative to congruent words in question-answer pairs. A possible sex difference in the depth of semantic processing was supported by separate analyses on females and males.
In the current experiment, the question context generated a strong expectation with regard to when new information would become available. This suggests that in these conditions the semantic information was less elaborately processed Wang et al. In the following, we will discuss the more superficial semantic processing in these three conditions. The results especially the significant interaction between context and accentuation suggest that context and accentuation are not independent processing streams, but instead actively interact with each other.
This might reflect the reduced integration when the critical word information was neither in focus position nor accented. Furthermore, the accentuation in the agent position recruited more processing resources towards the agent.
Therefore, the incoming, unaccented information patient that appeared in non-focus position might have received fewer attentional resources, with less detailed semantic processing as a result. The effect starts as early as ms Johnson et 66 Focus and pitch accent al. In the current study, we focused on the consequences of IS on semantic processing.
We found that the contextually determined focus and the accentuation pattern need to converge in order to attain deep semantic processing. The idea that females are more likely to engage in deeper semantic processing than males is also in line with more generally observed gender differences in cognitive 67 Chapter 3 style. Previous cognitive studies have found that females process information in an exhaustive way, and that they rely on all available information before rendering judgment.
We conclude that sex differences in semantic processing clearly deserve further investigation. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: Event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing.
Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle number agreement or salient phrase structure syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition.
For salient violations, comparable P effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately.
We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion. For instance, in the question-answer pair Who orders a taxi after the party? The guest orders a taxi after the party, the constituent of the answer the word in boldface corresponding to the wh-word in the question conveys important information and thus has a focus status, while the other part of the answer refers to information already stated in the question, and hence forms the background Jasinskaja et al.
These studies focused mainly on the N The N is a negative-going brain potential with a centro-posterior distribution. The results showed that the semantic incongruence evoked a significantly larger N effect for focused than for non-focused information, which confirms the role of IS in modulating the depth of semantic processing.
The current study addresses whether IS also has an influence Texture#3 - International Trio - Donkere Golven (CD the depth of syntactic processing. It has a posterior distribution, and occurs between around ms and ms post-stimulus. P effects are usually reported in response to syntactic violations Hagoort et al. Therefore, we can measure online syntactic processing by examining specific ERP responses to syntactic violations. They instructed the subjects either to judge the grammaticality of the sentences which requires more detailed syntactic analysis or to judge the printed cases upper case or lower case of particular words in the sentences which induces only shallow syntactic processing.
They found that compared to the grammaticality judgment task, the physical judgment task reduced the N and P effects elicited by the 72 IS and Chomsky illusion syntactic violations. The results suggested shallow processing might attenuate the amplitude of language related ERP effects. In this study, we use IS to direct attentional resources towards, or away from, target words in sentences. When target words are in focus position, we hypothesize that the syntactic markers of these words will be processed deeply.
When target words are in non-focus position, on the other hand, we hypothesize that the syntactic aspects of those words are processed in a more shallow fashion. ERPs will be recorded in response to syntactic violations that are either in focus or non-focus position. The ERP effects in response to syntactic violations will be compared between the focus and non-focus conditions.
We hypothesize attenuated ERP effects in the non-focus condition compared to the focus condition. More specifically, we manipulated IS by using wh-question answer pairs, such that a critical word in the answer sentence was either in focus or in non-focus position. In addition, the grammaticality of the focused or non-focused constituent was manipulated.
In order to explicitly examine the extent to which IS modulates syntactic processing, two types of grammatical violations were included. A number agreement violation violates the syntactic constraints in a subtle way, since the violated and correct words are often similar at the orthographic level e. In addition, we also constructed a more salient violation, a phrase structure violation, which is more likely to be detected than the number agreement violation.
We hypothesized that readers allocate more attentional resources to focused information and process it more deeply than non-focused information, resulting in larger P effects for the focused than non-focused information in response to syntactic violations.
Nevertheless, this IS modulation might be overridden 73 Chapter 4 by the salience of the violation e. They were all right handed, with neither dyslexia nor neurological abnormalities. The materials contained two different factors: Grammaticality and Context.
In the question-answer pairs, all the answers had a fixed structure See Table 4. In the correct condition, all the sentences were both syntactically and semantically correct Table 4. In the other two conditions, a number agreement violation or a phrase structure violation was created that became clear at the subject nouns. The number agreement violation was a combination of a singular verb and a plural subject Table 4.
The other syntactic violation, i. Therefore, in addition to the CW subject nounwe also analyzed the word preceding the CW CW-1 for the phrase structure violation condition Hagoort et al.
Table 4. An example of the six conditions for one experimental item set. Who orders a taxi after the party? Na afloop van het feest bestellen de nogal boze gasten een taxi. After the party order the rather angry guests a taxi. The rather angry guests order a taxi after the party.
When does one order a taxi? Note: The original materials are in Dutch. The English translations are given in the parentheses after the original Dutch materials. Note that both literal and correct English translations are given for the answer sentences due to word order differences between Dutch and English. The critical words are underlined, and the linguistic focus is in boldface in the answers.
In addition to the factor Grammaticality, the factor Context focus, non-focus was manipulated by means of different wh -questions in the question-answer pairs. The violation occurred after the focus e. What does one order after the party? Note that in the non-focus conditions, the questions contained pronouns such as men one rather than full nouns such as gasten guests to ensure that the critical words e.
This was done since it has been shown that the information status new vs. In addition, to make sure that the number agreement violation happened on the CWs subject nouns in the answer sentences, the verbs in the questions were used in singular forms, as generally the singular verbs in the questions can be followed by either plural or singular verbs in the answers. See Table 4.
The six conditions were distributed across six experimental lists through a Latin square procedure, with each list containing equal numbers of items per condition 40 items. In this way we made sure that all the items were presented in each list with no repetition of items. As a result, in each list, items had CWs in focus position by using whoquestion contexts. Among the other items, 60 items had CWs placed before the focus constituent by using what- question contexts, and the other 60 items had CWs located after the focus constituent by using where- question contexts 30 items or whenquestion contexts 30 items.
In addition to the syntactic manipulation, we also included a semantic manipulation. However, since the focus of this chapter is on the syntactic processing modulated by IS, we do not elaborate the semantic manipulations here. Four lists Album) built by assigning 40 items of each condition in one list there were items, four conditions per itemwith no repetition of items within one list.
Consequently, in each list, there were 40 items with a which-question, 40 items with a what-kind-of-question, 40 items with a where-question, and 40 items with a when-question. For each type of question, half of the answers contained a word that was semantically incongruent in relation to the question context, but never within the sentence itself. Finally, filler question-answer pairs were constructed to balance the correctness of the answers fully congruent, syntactically incorrect, semantically incorrect and the question types who- what- when- where- which- what-kind-of-as well as to cover up the obvious difference between the syntactic and semantic manipulations.
Among the fillers, 80 items were fully congruent, 40 of which served as fillers for syntactic materials. Another 40 fully congruent items served as fillers for semantic materials. There were also 50 filler items containing either syntactic violations 20 items or semantic violations 30 items.
The items with syntactic violation had similar question contexts as the semantic materials, while the items with semantic anomalies had similar question contexts as the syntactic materials, so that the subjects could not predict any syntactic or semantic violations by only reading the question contexts.
Twelve lists were built, in which the six lists of syntactic items were repeated twice, the four lists of semantic items were repeated three times, and the fillers were repeated twelve times. Each list comprised experimental items, additional items with a semantic manipulation, and fillers. Each list was presented to two participants one male and one female.
All the materials were presented in white fonts on a black background, with the font size of 27 for the whole questions and of 30 for the words of answers. The last word ended with a period. Three hundred milliseconds after the presentation of the last word, the next trial began. Participants were told not to 79 Chapter 4 move or blink when individual words appeared, but they were encouraged to blink during the presentation of the cross.
There was no additional task other than to read for comprehension. The materials in each list were arranged in a pseudorandom order, such that no more than three items of the same condition were presented in succession. The items in one list were divided into 26 blocks 20 or 21 trials per blockwith each block lasting about four minutes.
In between each block there was a small break, after which subjects could start the beginning of the next block by pressing a button. The whole experiment was separated into two sessions 13 blocks per session. Each session took about two hours, including subject preparation, instructions and a short practice run consisting of 15 items. The subjects finished the two sessions on two different days, with a minimum Album) one day in between both sessions.
The vertical and horizontal eye movements were monitored by electrodes placed in the cap. All electrode impedances were kept below 20 KQ during the experiment, which is well below what is recommended for active electrodes. EEG data were digitized at a rate of Hz with a Hz high cut-off filter and a 10 seconds time constant.
First, the data were re-referenced off-line to the average of both mastoids, then 80 IS and Chomsky illusion a band-pass filter of 0. For the number agreement violation condition, the critical epoch was defined from ms before to ms after the onset of the CW, with baseline correction from to 0 ms preceding word onset. For the phrase structure violation, the critical epoch started from ms before the word preceding the critical word CW-1 and lasted till ms after the onset of the CW to ms relative to the onset of CW-1with the time window of ms to 0 ms before the onset of CW-1 serving as the baseline.
The epochs of the correct condition were defined in analogous ways as the two violation conditions: to ms relative to the onset of CW as in the agreement violation condition, and to ms relative to the onset of CW-1 as in the phrase structure violation condition. After that, a semi-automatic artifact rejection procedure was applied. For statistical testing, trials were averaged in each condition for each electrode and each subject.
For the number violation condition, the P component was defined between and ms, while for the phrase structure violation, the P component was quantified in the time 81 Chapter 4 window of ms. In addition, for the P elicited by the CW-1 in the phrase structure violation condition, a time window of ms was selected. Given that the N Texture#3 - International Trio - Donkere Golven (CD the P components were most prominent over the posterior areas, we selected 25 posterior electrodes the selected electrodes are painted in light gray on the head model in Figure 4.
Therefore, we calculated the mean amplitudes in the selected time windows over 25 posterior electrodes for each subject and each condition. Since our hypothesis included the direction of the P effects, one-sided significance tests were used for testing the P effects. For testing the significance of the observed N effects see resultstwo-sided tests were used.
Figure 4. Grand average waveforms for the number agreement violation and the correction condition. The waveforms are shown for the focus condition left panel and the non-focus condition right panelat two scalp sites 28, 58 which are indicated in the head model. The onset of the critical word CW is at zero. Negativity is plotted up. The N time windows 0. The selected posterior electrodes for statistical tests are painted in light gray on the head model. Focus Non-focus Figure 4.
Grand average waveforms for the phrase structure violation condition and the correct condition. The selected posterior and anterior electrodes for statistical tests are respectively painted in light gray and dark gray on the head model. Recent studies published in PloS Pathogens, Nature and Nature Medicine have highlighted the role of viral escape in creating new epitopes and immunotypes, thereby driving the development of neutralisation breadth, with implications for HIV vaccine design.
Research interest in tuberculosis and in developing and testing point of care diagnostics suitable for the developing world. More specifically, the reconstitution of the immune response during antiretroviral treatment, in order to identify correlates of protection including immune mechanisms that lead to reduced susceptibility to TBand pathogenesis such as the Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, TB-IRIS ; the biosignature of the TB infection spectrum, from latent infection to active disease; preventing TB infection in HIV infected people more effectively; and the pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis and pericarditis.
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